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Ask HN: If you wanted to 'hardware jailbreak' a device, how might you do this?
4 points by hwhatwhatwhat  2 hours ago   discuss
Best resource for beginning Linear Algebra
3 points by avindroth  4 hours ago   2 comments top 2
Tomte 4 hours ago 0 replies      
Strang has a great book.

If you want something different, Axler's "Linear Algebra Done Right" or maybe Shilov's Linear Algebra book are good.

Cypher 3 hours ago 0 replies      
its common to put "ask HN:" for posing questions like this. Without it I was expecting a link to resources.
Ask HN: Good software for interactive exploration of quantum/particle physics?
85 points by Fr0styMatt88  1 day ago   23 comments top 19
japanuspus 1 day ago 0 replies      
For quantum physics, you have to try "Quantum Moves" which is a citizen science project studying optimal control for a particle wave packet. The preliminary results were recently published in nature (http://www.nature.com/news/human-mind-excels-at-quantum-phys...).

The game is available for many platforms (including iOS and Android) at https://www.scienceathome.org/games/quantum-moves/game. Be aware that the game is highly addictive!

opaque 22 hours ago 0 replies      
At the more serious end; the quantum optics toolbox in python (QuTip) http://qutip.org/index.html is what I used for my PhD research. Combined with Jupiter notebook http://jupyter.org/ it gives you a great sandbox to quickly setup Hamiltonians and plot their dynamics. It also has extensive docs and examples too. You can simulate simple systems in just a few lines of python.
warrenpj 1 day ago 1 reply      
There is "Quirk" by Craig Gidney, a Quantum Circuit Simulator.


matt4077 23 hours ago 0 replies      
It's still quite hard to do simulations on the timescales needed for any sort of interesting chemical reaction or physical effects.

Foldit (http://fold.it/portal/) is probably the best there is a game that actually contributes to the science of protein folding.

You can also try GROMACS to actually run physical simulations, but it's more involved and not what you'd consider interactive. But you can look at your molecule wiggling in space with any pdb viewer.

virgil_disgr4ce 19 hours ago 1 reply      
OP, we're in the same boat. I also am in a deep, deep QM hole, and just finished reading Six Easy Pieces, Six Not-So-Easy Pieces, and QED (HIGHLY recommended), and have been trying to work through several quantum physics textbooks. It's astonishing to me how few high-quality visualizations there are: smatterings of videos on youtube (which you can't always guarantee are trustworthy).

I've been dreaming of a WebGL-based 'quantum lab' to revolutionize this. Would anyone be interested in helping attack this problem with me?

Lastly, I'll add in my recommendation since I don't see it here yet: Falstad's terrific simulators, with a whole section just for QM. (Note: java applets. SIIIGGHHHHH) http://www.falstad.com/mathphysics.html

Noteall of Falstad's stuff is open source, and I've been dying to port a few to webgl as a way to get started. Anyone with an interest in this would be a very welcome help!

Fr0styMatt88 12 hours ago 0 replies      
Thanks all, these are great suggestions!

By the way, re- The Powder Toy - despite my comment in the question it actually seems like it's pretty realistic in many ways. The number of different things it models at once is impressive (interactions between substances, airflow and pressure, ambient heat and heat flow, etc) plus it has a ton of visualisation modes for seeing properties of the simulation (such as visualising temperature). Highly highly recommended - I've already spent a large amount of time in it! :)

em3rgent0rdr 1 day ago 0 replies      
Quantum puzzle game where you have to guide your wavefunction through obstacles. https://linkingideasblog.wordpress.com/2016/04/25/learning-q... (Java required)
japanuspus 1 day ago 0 replies      
If you are into quantum computing, IBM has recently made runtime on an actual hardware quantum computer available for free at http://www.research.ibm.com/quantum/
po 21 hours ago 0 replies      
Totally not a simulation and more of a particle-themed game is Particulars. [1] It is a game with a story but it stays true to the underlying science of combining quarks and other fundamental particles.

I found it to be pretty fun but since it is based on such un-intuitive physics it's sometimes pretty hard to understand what you are doing or why you've won or lost a level.


Ono-Sendai 18 hours ago 0 replies      
This might not be very helpful, but I have some code that does a QM simulation - single particle in arbitrary potential, can do hydrogen atom etc..Quite a lot of fun to watch. I plan to make some videos of it some day, and maybe release it as a program.
rom16384 1 day ago 1 reply      
The book "Visual Quantum Mechanics" by Bernd Thaller includes a CD-ROM. I didn't use the software, but I found the book interesting.

EDIT: I'm not sure if the latest edition still includes the CD-ROM.

EDIT2: There are some materials on the book's website, http://vqm.uni-graz.at/index.html

livatlantis 1 day ago 0 replies      
Excellent question! I found the CERN Virtual Atom Smasher [0], which you might find interesting. I haven't personally played with it enough to be able to tell you how it is; it is directly from CERN, though.

0: http://test4theory.cern.ch/vas/

p0nce 22 hours ago 0 replies      
There is a research project around here called SAMSON https://youtu.be/kjegYq4hflo?t=51s
xm522 20 hours ago 0 replies      
A good powerful simulation tool you should look into should really be GEANT4. It really sets the standard by which all Nuclear Physics simulation try to adhere. It is not a 'toy' but more like a collection of tools you can use to simulate anything from x-ray radiation to a Photon's path inside a scintillator.
emilsedgh 1 day ago 1 reply      
On Linux you can use KDE's Step [0]

[0] https://edu.kde.org/step/

musgravepeter 23 hours ago 0 replies      
If you want to tinker with gravity, you can try ThreeBody (Lite or Full) on iOS/Android.

Disclaimer - I'm the developer.

selimthegrim 23 hours ago 0 replies      
sympy has recently added some modules, see the quantum subfolder in particular


viktorsr 1 day ago 0 replies      
There's an iPad app called "The Particles". Last update was in 2013 though.
mst3c 20 hours ago 0 replies      
the nanohub.org is a good place to play with model systems of quantum conduction, EK dispersions, and such if you're interested in learning about molecular transistors, for instance. Along the same lines, you can play with Quantum Espresso (http://www.quantum-espresso.org/) to do your own full blown abinitio quantum simulations.
Ask HN: Current state of parental internet control?
7 points by tonteldoos  10 hours ago   11 comments top 5
saturdayplace 9 hours ago 2 replies      
OpenDNS is handy. You

1/ Sign up for an account2/ Configure your home's router to use their DNS servers3/ Install an agent on a machine in your home's network, authenticate it with your account credentials. When your router's IP address changes, this agent makes sure to update your account.4/ Configure the sites or types of site you want to block.

Once you're up and running, If a DNS request from your network matches something that'd be blocked, you'll get re-directed to a "Blocked Content" page.

stephenr 6 hours ago 0 replies      
If they're using OS X, there is a Parental Controls system preference.

The amount of things that can be set is quite comprehensive:

- the apps that can be used

- which iTunes/App Stores are available and with what age ratings

- whether the camera can be used

- whether Mail can be used to contact anyone or just allowed contacts

- One of "unrestricted web access", "try to limit access to adult sites" or "allow access only to sites in <list>"

- time limits for the account - hours per day, and time of day for weekdays and weekends.

- privacy settings - e.g. allow him/her to install an app/use sites, but prevent those apps/sites from accessing things like contacts data etc.

The only 'off the shelf' solution that would cover this level of control for macs network-wide, would be to put OS X server onto one of the computers and use network logins, with the appropriate limits set.

On Windows a Group Policy probably can achieve the same results, and maybe they're easier to use now, but they were definitely not as point-and-click as Apple's options last time I had any interaction with them.

afarrell 10 hours ago 1 reply      
I don't know how useful it is for preventing kids from getting on 8chan, but for productivity, I use https://freedom.to/freedom and it is great!

It works on both OSX and iOS.

It lets you maintain multiple blocklists.

It lets you schedule sessions to start in the future so you can shut yourself off from the siren song of the set of all human knowledge at 11pm and go to sleep.

aareet 10 hours ago 1 reply      
Blue Coat offers an option that I've found to be effective - http://www1.k9webprotection.com
Nullabillity 10 hours ago 1 reply      
Parental control software has always been, and will always be, an unethical counterproductive exercise in futility. You might want to try talking to them instead.
I'm Peter Roberts, immigration attorney who does work for YC and startups. AMA
351 points by proberts  3 days ago   340 comments top 129
sesameoil 3 days ago 2 replies      
Hi Peter,

I've received my green card through my sponsor company 2 months ago. (It's a highly reputable fortune 100 company and I am building their core web product)

And I have a project that's getting traction and really want to leave the company and commit full time to it.

But everything on the web says I need to wait at least 6 months before leaving the company after I receive green card, otherwise they can kick me out for fraud when I apply for citizenship later. But some people also say this is just a myth.

So the question: Is this true and I am stuck with this company for next 4 months even though I really want to go full time on my project? Any ways to get around this? Thanks!

p.s.I know this is not a type of question that you may be interested in answering since it's a minority case, but I would really appreciate at least a one line comment on what you think (or even saying it's not something you can answer). It looks like it's not just me, at least 6 people are interested so far, we will all be grateful to hear from you!

sjtgraham 3 days ago 3 replies      
I'm a UK citizen that has been looking at EB-1A all week (because of Brexit), I'm now sure I do not want to continue living here if we in fact do withdraw from the EU. My questions:

- How many of the 10 criteria must you actually satisfy? Is it a binary decision, i.e. proving 3/10 is the same as is the same as satisfying all 10. Is a positive decision 100% guaranteed is at least 3 criteria are proved satisfactorily?

- What is the standard of proof?

- When would my obligation to complete a IRS tax return begin, i.e. is it when the consulate adds an MRIV I-551 to my passport, when I arrive in the US an immigrant and CBP endorses it, or another time. This might impact when I would apply.

- How long would the EB-1A process take, how long does it take for a permanent resident to sponsor a spouse, can these applications happen concurrently, and are both categories current?

- What are the indicative costs?

mehta 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

Thanks for taking the time out to answer questions!

I am from India and am in US on H1B with gc process underway in EB2 category. I (along with a fellow friend) have been thinking of doing something on our own but are always discouraged by the immigration process. If we were to start something on our own, what are our options? H1b where you have a majority stake seems to not be an option. Is there an alternate way to do this?

I don't seem to satisfy requirements for O1.

jameshush 3 days ago 3 replies      
Hi Peter,

I'm a Canadian citizen with a four year computer science degree. I've gotten a TN work permit twice, with two different companies over the past three years.

If I started a company with an American citizen and they opened it up, could they then hire me as a Computer System Analyst? Is there a minimum salary they'd have to pay me (e.g. could I get a TN and still only get paid $10/hour)? Is this a common way for Canadian co-founders to enter the United States or is there a better route?

godbov 3 days ago 4 replies      
I know that Australian citizens can use the E3 visa for working in the US. Do you know if Australian citizens can start companies in the US using the E3 visa? Is it something like, you work for the company you founded? What happens if the company fails, or runs out of money?

EDIT: Updated question.

auggierose 3 days ago 5 replies      
So what does extraordinary ability mean? Are we talking PhD level ability here, or Turning award level ability, or somewhere in between?
ry_ry 3 days ago 2 replies      
I'm an English programmer working in the UK for a site owned by, via another company, a very large privately owned US company. I have a child and a partner I am not married to. I have no criminal record.

I'm unsettled by the brexit, and am considering a US move - if my company's parent wants to take me on how difficult is the immigration process likely to be?

otto_ortega 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I live in Central America, I have been working as a remote worker for US-based companies for around 5 years now, the past 1.5 years working for a company on Seattle, I haven't signed any formal work-contract but my current employer is willing to help me to obtain a VISA to inmigrate to the US (I only have a tourist VISA right now).

I'm also in the way to co-found a company with my employer as partner, I will get 16% of ownership over it.

What are my best options to move to the US?

May I still apply to an H1B visa despite not having a formal work-contral? (the payments records, Skype logs and emails are the only proof I have)

knxclkases 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter, Thank you for taking the time to do this AMA.

The company that I currently work for has offered to start processing my GC, but only under an EB3. I have a masters degree in computer science from an American University, (and I have about 4 years of work experience) so I am technically eligible for an EB2 (and since I am from India, EB2 vs EB3 makes a big difference).

My question is, if I go ahead with the processing, Once I have my I-140 and priority date, would it be possible for me to switch jobs keeping the same priority date? If I move to a company with the means (and willingness) to file for a GC under EB2, would they be able to keep the same priority date?

Just trying to understand if this is something worth fighting for? Or if I should just accept the EB3 filing, get my I-140 and eventually move to a company that will re-file it under EB2?

kevindeasis 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

Thank you very much for doing this! I have two questions about Canadian citizens looking for jobs in America. Possibly, looking to immigrate to Americain the future. Also, If possible getting double/triple citizenship.

Let's pretend you are a Canadian citizen, recently graduated from computing science, that is currently living in Alberta, Canada. What is the best way to get a job in America? Should I apply for a visa as well or should they offer a visa sponsorship?

Then, let's say I get hired. What's the best way to get an American citizenship with the goal of maintaining my Canadian citizenship? I was originally born in the Philippines; would it be wise to get three citizenships (America/Canada/Philippines)?

senpost 3 days ago 1 reply      
Can a H1B visa holder start a company?What are the options for H1B visa holder to do side projects for money?

Thank you.

raz32dust 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I have heard different answers to this from different people. Can I earn income from apps on apple store/android etc. if I am on a work permit in the USA? Does it matter if the app was initially launched when I was in India (my home country) or after I moved here?


hiranyaf 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter! I am so glad I found this thread.

I have been in the U.S. uninterrupted since 2002 and would like to figure out what my chances are for an EB-1 (or EB-2) green card. I was first on an F-1 while at Wharton getting my MBA, then on a G4 working for the World Bank, then sponsored on three different H1-Bs (2 corporate and one research think tank, and finally since 2012 on an E-2.

So I have been the U.S 14+ years, educated at a top school, paid taxes in the highest tax bracket, own two properties here,and started a business that has provided employment to 6 part-time American workers. Additionally my business is in career coaching and job search- and so I have helped over 400+ Americans find employment, including for the State Dept, DoD, and the U.S. Foreign Service.

I am trying to explore paths to a Green Card.. thank you in advance for your reply!

nopinsight 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter, Thank you much for doing this. I am a startup founder who plans to obtain E-2 visa and uses it for residency during the first 2 years of business. I hope to transfer to EB-1 or EB-2 with National Interest Waiver (NIW) as soon as possible.

1) What are the possibilities and timeline for applying to EB-2 while holding E-2 with majority interest in the startup? (I have a Masters in CS from a major US research university. It seems to be a challenge to qualify for EB-1 within the next 2 years, but NIW looks quite possible to me.)

A major reason for the plan is that E-2 treaty with my country limits the period of travel out and back into the US to 6 months after the visa approval. After 6 months, it appears that I will need to renew the visa every time I wish to come back to the US, which would be a major time sink.

2) Would EB-2 give its holders complete freedom to travel back to the States without issues and to stay as long as they wish?

3) Are EB-2 holders required to maintain employment with the original employer?

If you have time: I would strongly consider to become a US citizen after receiving an EB-2. What is the typical timeline and conditions to transfer from EB-2 to US citizenship?

Greatly appreciate it.

Trufa 3 days ago 2 replies      
I never had a formal university education, what are my real chances of being accepted for a work visa.

I think that I'm pretty good but and have a pretty interesting CV probably not "extraordinary".

What are the chances of me working in the USA? Does it really nullify my chances?

I have been working since I was 17 in jobs related and then very specific to programming, I'm 28 now.

I also have a uruguayan and spanish/european nationality, which would be better for an application?

FabianBeiner 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hello Robert! Thanks for doing this (again). I got two questions, but any answer is appreciated!

1st: Id love to stay in the US as a digital nomad for some months. Id have to work on my own projects and maybe on some client ones while doing this (all of them outside the US). Which kind of VISA would I need?

2nd: Are there any chances to get a work permit if you dont own a University degree? (Eg. starting my own company in the US?)

Thank you!

poorguyh1b 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter. I am on H-1B (currently going through PERM labor certification application). My wife is on TN-1. Could it be a problem at the border (exit then reenter US) because I have dual-intent and she does not?
claudiordgz 3 days ago 5 replies      
I'm a Mexican citizen living in the US working as a Computer Systems Analyst. Been here for 1 and a half year and my wife and daughter joined me a year ago. I just recently moved jobs and the UCSIS approved me a work permit and I-94 until 2019. I came here as a TN visa, and I am worried if asking for a green card would get me and my family in trouble.
rileyt 3 days ago 2 replies      
I have a TN and I would like to learn more about the legality of passive income forms like advertising, affiliates, etc. Where or who is the right place to get info on this? Thanks!
rednotebook 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hey Peter!

I'm moving with my company (large Washington-headquartered tech firm) from London to California. They're applying for an L1B specialized knowledge visa as a blanket application. What sorts of reasons are people rejected for L1s? I'm very nervous I'll be turned down as I've heard horror stories about USCIS. Does it being blanket improve my chances? What % of people are turned down? I married an American a few years ago and was intending to move to the US to be together but it didn't end up working out - I don't think the paperwork ever got sent in the end. Would something like this impact my chances? I'm probably worrying unnecessarily. I'm 26, worked at the company for just over a year and have worked for a couple of other large tech firms in London before that.


garyjob 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

My name is Gary. I am currently working under a H1B1 visa. My sponsoring company has tried without success to apply the H1B visa for the past three years. The lawyer is advicing that I proceed to applying for the green card.

The lawyer states that at this point, even if I get awarded the h1b visa since the time under the h1b1 will be counted towards the h1b, I will not have enough time using the H1B to get thru the green card application process

Also during this green card application process, it's advised for me to remain in the US otherwise I will get in complications when entering to with a H1B1 that has a outstanding green card process

I have two questions:1. Is what she said about the h1b1 time contribution to the h1b true?

2. Is what she said custom complication true?

hiranyaf 2 days ago 1 reply      
Hello Peter!

I am so happy to find you and this thread. here's my story: I am a Swiss and Sri Lankan national, female, been in the U.S. uninterrupted since 2002 on several different visas. F1-while at Wharton getting my MBA, then G4 working for the World Bank, then three different H1-Bs (2 corporate, one research think tank) and then since 2012 I have been on an E-2 for my start-up business.

So basically I have been in the U.S. for 14+ years already, paid taxes in the highest tax bracket, own two properties here, started a business and grew it to profitability in 4 years, so far provided employment to 6 part-time American workers. Additionally my start-up business is in career coaching and job search- and so I have helped over 400+ Americans land good jobs, including for positions at the State department, DoD, and the U.S. Foreign Service. My company has partnerships with universities like Georgetown and my team coaches close to a 1000 American students every year.

What are my chances of applying successfully for an Extraordinary Ability EB1 Green Card? Or EB2?

Thank you in advance!

marsha_ 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter, first of all thanks a ton for doing this.

My first question is how much time it takes to get green card through employment for someone who's not from India or China.

My second question is, does it make any difference to complete my MS before starting the process, or it doesn't change the approval chance and/or delay at all? (MS is from a middle eastern uni, not US)

--Here is a bit background about me: applied H1-B 3 times, didn't get selected. Now the company that applied for H-1B for me is preparing to apply for GC for me next month.I have a BS in CS and 3 years of experience, and almost done with a MS degree outside the US, just need to complete my thesis.

Thanks a lot again!

turnip1979 3 days ago 1 reply      
Thanks for taking the time. For Canadians or Europeans with PhDs and a sufficient track record to make EB1 feasible, is it better to work at a research institution while one gets a green card, or is it better to just plow ahead with a startup and then do the EB1? Can you discuss pros and cons? I've seen many colleagues delay their startup aspirations while they wait for immigration reasons .. I want to understand if this is being prudent or a folly. I've heard the green card that you get as a researcher is nominally approved for that job title. Are there issues people face when they eventually attempt to become naturalized?
throwawaydui 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

Thanks for doing this! I am currently looking at a unique situation, so I'm not sure if you would know about this. All I'm asking is if you would know anything from your experience.

I'm an h1b visa holder from India and I recently got arrested and charged with a DUI. After talking to my lawyer, he looked at the evidence (videos, breathalyzer tests) and says its basically a 50% chance at a trial. So I'm looking at a plea bargain. How would this affect my immigration prospects? The DUI itself was my first one and it was a simple DUI, i.e. noone else was harmed or injured.


ionwake 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

If I am a UK contractor with my own Limited company, what visa - if any, do I need to be able to do a 6-month contract in the US?

Thank you.

pramttl 3 days ago 0 replies      
Do you see new OPT STEM extension (24 months) and it's requirements be something that could be met by most F-1 student entrepreneurs on OPT?

Background:The new 24 month STEM OPT Extension [1] (effective from May 10, 2016) which requires employers to fill I-983 [2] (Lengthy Training Plan) has created additional barrier for foreign students intending to start/work with startup companies on STEM OPT Extension (which earlier was for 17 months with less regulations). Being an F-1 student myself I can say that, these regulations could certainly influence more potential F-1 entrepreneurs down the "job seeking" path as opposed to "job creation/entrepreneurship" path because it is much easier for bigger companies with resources to satisfy the USCIS training plan requirements/I-983 as opposed to newly born companies.

[1] https://www.uscis.gov/working-united-states/students-and-exc...

[2] https://www.ice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Document/2...

bing_dai 3 days ago 2 replies      
Hi Peter,

First of all, thank you very much for doing this.

My questions are about the USA Diversity Lottery (https://www.dvlottery.state.gov/), as I rarely see any discussions about it:

- Out of all the people you have seen who obtained a green card, roughly what is the percentage of them getting it through the lottery?

- Roughly how much time and money would the process cost? (I would assume it's similar to the ~2-4 years and ~$15K that a regular green card application cost?)

- Any other general comments you have about the lottery?

Thank you.

amingilani 3 days ago 1 reply      
How much does the whole process cost? As an international founder, that's my only major concern.
napoleonarwhal 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

I am from the United States and recently discovered that my cofounder is an undocumented immigrant. What should I do? Are there legal consequences to this?

freak4pc 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter ! Thanks for doing this, I do have a couple of short questions.

I'm an employee of a large US Corporate and got a O1 Visa which I'm currently employed under. I understand that my spouse will be able to move here as a O-dependant, but won't be able to work which is a huge issue for us and will probably prevent us from moving out to the US unless we find a permanent solution.

I do wonder, what are my options of getting her a work permit besides her finding a job that would endorse her and going through the entire process?

From what I've read seems like the two options I have are:

- H1B so she could get a H4. I understand that last year Obama approved some H4 recipients can work, but I'm not sure what the criteria is. I know that it's only able to be filed by 1st of April, but I also understand that there is a premium fee that could be paid to rush things up. Would love your input on this from your experience.

- L1 so she could get a L2. Best solution it seems but getting a L1 is a lengthy process and needs a 1-year employment period which I might not have by the time we want to move.

Thanks for reading this, I would really appreciate your professional opinion on this !


ecesena 3 days ago 1 reply      
Thanks for this AMA!

I wonder what is the best structure for a US based company to have employees living in an EU country, such as Germany or Italy?

I mean, I assume they don't necessarily need a visa, and they can come to the US for limited time periods under the ESTA.

What is the best way to give them a salary and/or other common benefits? (health insurance shouldn't be needed, but 401.k or equivalent in their country would probably be a good perk).

throw345hn 3 days ago 0 replies      
1. I studied in a HCI (Human computer interaction) program where there were a mix of programmers and designers. I found that after graduation a lot of the designers were applying for O1B and were easily getting those whereas programmers generally stuck to H1B's even though some of the projects that were being shown as part of the application documentation were group projects. Is it harder to receive an O1A for people in sciences because their work is generally not visual in nature vs O1B which is for arts (or designers)?

2. My OPT ends this month (June 30th) and my employer filed for H1B starting Oct 1st. My university issued another I20 (called CAP GAP extension) which start July 1st. But currently I am thinking about changing jobs immediately as my current employer is suffering financially and I am not sure how long they may survive. Is it ok to do that during the CAP GAP period if my new employer is willing to sponsor H1B? I have read online where some people say its ok but others say its not.

Thanks for the AMA

vthallam 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter! Thanks for the AMA!

Can you please describe briefly about the process to establish a company here while on H1-B. From incorporation to founder's visa status. Whether there has to be a American co-founder or if it helps to have one. If funding helps in getting a visa etc.

The description about the 2 visa's for GC is clear, i just wanted to know about initiating the process.

Thanks in Advance!

anarazel 3 days ago 1 reply      
Is there any reasonable explanation for not being "allowed" to leave the US, after filing for adjustment of status? Without advance parole, that is. Especially when a different class of visa (say an O1, while applying for EB1A) would still allow reentry? That can be rather annoying both for professional and personal reasons.
andor436 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter, thanks for doing this!

My company currently employs a brilliant, in my opinion, Argentine scientist. We'd love to bring him to the US periodically, but he can't get a visa as he owns no property in Argentina, isn't married, etc. Short of meeting in a more neutral country do we have any options?

tommyvoltz 3 days ago 0 replies      
Is popular github repo enough for o1 visa? it is significant achievement in programmers community)
duglauk 3 days ago 1 reply      
I am on h1b and have a blog with pretty good traffic. Can I have a google adsense account and earn ad $$ ?
creativey 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

I am currently on f1 visa. I was declined for H1B visa by my company in 2015 so I went back to f1. I am currently going to school but I don't want to continue anymore since I want to work and get new experiences.

Can you give me advice on how can I overcome this challenge and make my greencard?

Thank You

throw42 3 days ago 1 reply      
I have a O-1, how hard is it to get a EB1A. In what percentage of cases will a O-1 person get a EB1A.
aliakhtar 3 days ago 1 reply      
> the extraordinary ability and national interest waiver routes--are often very good options, and often overlooked because of a misunderstanding about the standards.

Can you please clarify that, especially about the extraordinary ability criteria / standards? Is there a yard stick that one can measure themselves against, to get a realistic assessment of what their chances are?

E.g may be an example persona of someone who qualifies? The examples that are given by the immigration website are olympic atheletes and such. That's probably someone who is way overqualified though. What's an example of a person who just barely qualifies, or who neither under nor over qualifies?

P.S can I hire you to be my attorney for my EB1?

alantrrs 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi, Peter! as a Mexican, could I get an E2 visa investing $50k of my own money into my startup? Or what's the lowest investment needed for an E2 visa? In order to reach that threshold, could my investment be complemented with VC or angel's money?


gibsjose 3 days ago 2 replies      
Hey Peter, thanks for this.

Have you heard about SimpleCitizen? (https://simplecitizen.com/)

My wife and I were recently married and are currently considering this for getting her green card.

Any thoughts?

confiscate 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hey Peter,

My question is typical in the SF Bay Area, H1B founder:

I am an American Citizen. Opened up a startup C-corp. Company does not have a lot of press coverage yet. I have a friend who would like to join my startup as founder, but have doubts about immigration issues:

- H1B

- EB2

- originally from India

- graduated masters from a U.S. College

- currently software engineer for another big company. Has been for several years

- just starting the green card process

As a startup we don't have much revenue yet. He is willing to give up his salary (just as I did) to become a founder. I am worried about H1B's salary requirement preventing him from doing this.

What options do I have for bringing him on board to my startup as a founder? What would be the best way to do this?

chikathreesix 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,Thank you so much for having this. This is really helpful.I have heard that if you could get into YC, O1 would be an option because being selected by YC means you have extraordinary ability. Is that true?
einstein 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter, I've a few questions:

1. What's the relationship between O1 sponsoring entity and you? Do you've to be employed by the sponsoring entity? Can you run your own business while on O1? Can you get paid by someone else than the sponsoring entity while on O1?

2. How to determine if I should go with O1 or EB2? My attorney says if my EB2 gets rejected then there can be issues getting any other non-immigration visa.

3. If I already have O1, then what's the process like going from O1 to Green Card? When can you go from O1 to Green Card?

4. If I already have O1, are there tricks to stay in the US and never go back to home country to renew it?


perardi 3 days ago 1 reply      
I work, remotely, for a private US software firm, and about a year from now, I'd like to move to Toronto to live with my partner. (Yay for long-distance relationships.)

Is it practical to work remotely for a US firm in Canada?

zanethomas 3 days ago 1 reply      
Also, from my friend again:

I know O1 visa is very specific for example O1 for producing or or O1 for acting. If your O1 is for producing you cannot do acting under that visa. Currently I have only enough experience only for producing. But Ideally I want to get O1 for producing and acting. My question is if you have O1 for producing, while you are at O1 you want to apply O1 for producing and acting, if I get denied is my O 1 for producing still good or it get waive? Or can I just petition to add acting in my current O1? If I petition to add acting and get denied does my O1 as a whole gets cancelled?

salina_om 2 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,I was born in the states but moved back to my country. I only have my birth certificate and I have recently come to the states under a B1/B2 visa. I have applied for jobs.How does it work in my case, can I apply for a working visa? My current visiting visa is valid for 6 months.
linuxfan 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I have a green card that will expire in August 2016. I also have a valid travel permit until 2018. If I do not renew my green card in August, and leave the country, will I still be able to return using the travel permit?

throwasay30967 3 days ago 0 replies      
Thanks for this AMA!

Who is behind the "Washington Alliance of Technology Workers" and why do they keep bringing lawsuits against STEM OPT for F-1 visas?

Is there any moves on increasing the H1-B quota or modifying the H1-B altogether?

no1youknowz 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I'm based in the UK and in talks with (UK Based) investors for a significant amount of seed money to start a company.

I want to setup a US based company as all of the business will be with the US and I want a local office.

What sort of "investment" for the US based company do I need to make, so that I can secure a visa and what type of E visa should I be trying to get.

I know higher the better is probably preferable. But where is the sweet spot? $100k, $250k, $500k?

I do not have a PHd, nor a Masters or even Degree. However I have 25 years of IT experience and I am the technical / founder of my company.


niwquestion 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

I am an international founder just starting on OPT after getting a PhD and hoping to get an EB-2 NIW. I have a couple questions:

1. Does starting a (small-at-the-beginning) bona fide technology startup is grounds for NIW? How difficult is the process in general (for a PhD in CS from a US school) and how many paper/citations on average do you see in successful cases?

2. If I succeed in my NIW case, can I later employ my brother (from the same nationality under E-2) and bring him on board as a cofounder later? Does it require substantial cash on his behalf?


h1bquestion 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi, My questions is regarding a different aspect of immigration -- what are my rights if my company promised to sponsor an h1b visa but failed to do so (a mistake on their end). The company offered a compensation package for their error, but I'm not sure what's fair in that case. Should it be calculated on the months I've been there, or the value that could've potentially came if I got the h1b. (Ps the company's success rate with h1bs has been 100% so far)
noahlt 3 days ago 0 replies      
A friend of mine feels that the H1-B system is rigged, that the big companies will get as many H1-Bs as they ask for and that smaller companies essentially don't have the same degree of access to that labor pool. My impression is that he is wrong, but I'm no expert. As someone who deals with this regularly, what's your takedo you think big companies are practically guaranteed to get H1-B workers? How disadvantaged are smaller companies (esp those without access to YC resources)?
vorador 3 days ago 0 replies      
Is it possible for a person under an H-1B visa to have a money-generating side-project? I've read that it was absolutely illegal but I'd like to have an actual lawyer's opinion.


dbancajas 3 days ago 1 reply      
Peter, Can you evaluate my specific case? I am going to send my resume and also my google scholar citation page.


- I have about 46 citations.

- Graduated last June 2015 PhD EE from a small US school.

- 5+ conference papers in top conferences in my field.

- 1 best paper award in a 250-paper conference.

- 1 best paper nomination in 200+-paper conference.

- 11+ conference/journal papers in Total.

- 3 approved US patents

Go or No-go on EB1-A?

I emailed this law firm for EB1: http://www.curranberger.com/ and they said I won't qualify.

What's your opinion?

danellis 3 days ago 0 replies      
If I, in the US, found a US-based company with someone from overseas, what should we do to maximize his chances of eventually moving to the US on an L visa?
web007 3 days ago 0 replies      
I have several sponsored (H1B?) friends / co-workers who I would want as employees in my future startup. How expensive / difficult is it to take on sponsorship?
ashkan3 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter, I'm a software engineer and working under F1-OPT status. I didn't get H1-B in the lottery this year. But I can maintain work authorization by extending my OPT for 2 years from now(STEM). My company told me they would apply for my green card after a year from my employment. Do I need to have a H1-B so that they can start the process for my gc? Or can they start the process while i'm on OPT?


mahoneyturnbull 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hello Peter,Thank you so much for offering this opportunity - this is really fantastic reading everyones Q+A's!

1.Re H3 'traineeship' visa. Is that a recommended route, in lieu of the o1a for business? Would an accelerator be able to satisfy this from your experience (i.e. 500 Startups) ?

2. Re H1B: Is it true that a more strategic month to submit it is around October? I am hearing conflicting opinions on the matter of timing.

tostitos1979 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi .. I am curious about how the final-part of the green card process works for a married couple living in different countries: say a dependent spouse is outside the country while the sponsoring spouse (say someone who applied via EB-1 or Eb-2) is inside the US. Is it possible for one (the dependent) to use consular processing and the other to do a change of status while inside the country? Thanks so much!
ankitml 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi peter,

I have an H1b petition approved till Aug 2017 but my visa hasnt been stamped.. can i get my petition extended even without having been travelled to US even once?

Also, if i have a valid visa but the petition gets expired. am i still eligible to work on the visa or the petition needs to be extended? can another employer get the petition extended for me?

jensvdh 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

What are the odds of the H1-B lottery system changing under a Clinton/Trump presidency. What kind of changes can we expect from either of them?

dvcoolster 3 days ago 0 replies      
I have a 10 year B1/B2 visa, and I want to start-up in US asap. What are my options? I don't mind not being in controlling stake, that's not an issue. Is there any mandate around, If a company raises X, or creates Y jobs, they can stay in US. Thanks for all the answers
canIleaveyet 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

Thanks again for taking the time to answer questions. I am currently on OPT and was lucky enough to receive a H1B in this year's lottery a month or so ago. It is scheduled as a change of status happening on Oct 1st. Can I leave my current company if I have another offer and transfer the H1B to that company before Oct 1st? I have heard conflicting stories. Thanks!

aryamaan 1 day ago 0 replies      
What are different visas an Indian person can apply for to work in U.S. and what are the prerequisites for that?
kalemayank 3 days ago 1 reply      
I'm going to graduate with a B.S next year and already have a startup. We're raising a significant round late this year and i have a cofounder who is US citizen. Is it possible for me to have a majority stake in this company, work on it under OPT and file for an H1B or does someone need to have the ability to fire me?
vchauras1 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I have two simple questions:

I am on H1-b and I have my I-140 approved (eb-2).

- I want to switch my job and before taking up a new job in USA I want a break. Is it possible to take break of 2,3 months w/o being un-employed? If not, is there a way to achieve this?

- Once I move to a new firm, what process I can follow so that my GC application continue in normal pace?

dkraft 3 days ago 1 reply      
If I am a Colombian Citizen with a multivisit visa, and I don't have the actual visa because it is attached to an expired visa which is forgotten in the U.S. - What are the chances of re-entering USA? Is the visa information in the computer or is it useless without the physical stamp?
pbowyer 3 days ago 0 replies      
When you are self-employed and run a successful company, is there a way to immigrate on that basis? Or do you have to find another company to work for, who will sponsor your visa application.

UK citizen, looking for a way out after yesterday's EU vote.

DelaneyM 3 days ago 0 replies      
What guidance would you give to a Canadian applying to YC who doesn't plan to stay in SF after demo day? Is it possible to work in SF for the duration of the program employed by the startup, or is it best framed as a holiday? Can one pay oneself, or pay for expenses, in that time?
rinormand 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter, really appreciate your initiative. Is there any kind of conflict if I apply to O1 and L1 at same time, assuming I have all the requisites for both. In your opinion the option for Premium Processing Service decrease the chances to be approved? Best regards, RN
galaxor 3 days ago 0 replies      
Dear Mr. Robers,I am a Spanish National, I have a small US Cloud startup company, we pay around 12K a month in services in the US, have invested around 500K in about 5 Years in Hardware are other items. Whats the best way for me to go about a biz / investor or work visa ?
oneloop 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter, thanks for your time.

I'm European and I live in London and run a small advertising business (business is just me). I have a PhD in STEM. I can code.

Given this, what would you advise is the best route if I want to work and live in the USA? Would getting a job at an American company be enough?

Thank you

threwawayx 3 days ago 1 reply      
I am a high school dropout in India. How can I make it to the US with an H1B work visa (or some other country in EU) ?

I've had (technical) job offers from US, Germany, Denmark, Japan, etc. but all of them have had issues with this.

togepiiod 3 days ago 0 replies      
Any thoughts or experience with the EB5 route, and founding a startup on arrival? (assuming you have the required 500k or 1m, and you are investing in something unrelated to the startup).

Is it a good choice for canadians?

What is the best way to find a qualifying and legitimate investment?

capote 3 days ago 0 replies      
I'm a US citizen and want to move to Australia for good. How can I find someone like you in Australia to get advice from on how to proceed? (I'd just be looking for a normal software/managerial job kind of like the one I have now)
ryanlm 3 days ago 0 replies      
When is the best time to incorporate and do a binding equity split for a new venture? I have a co founder and we've begun to talk about a 50 50 equity split as an S corporation. Before work is done, is it best to have a real entity formed?
jerrickhoang 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

Thanks for taking questions. I'm currently on F1 OPT and just lost the H1B lottery. Was wondering if it's legal for me to apply directly for a GC instead. If yes, are there potential risks during the process and in the future. Thanks

matheweis 3 days ago 0 replies      
Is it even possible for someone to immigrate like the Ellis island days? It sounds like it is a complete stonewall if you don't have some exceptional skill and a lot of money ... how could a "normal" person immigrate now?
relaunched 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I want someone to join as a co-founder, to currently work nights and weekends. However, currently, he's under H1B, working for a US company, in the US. What, if any, are the risks to both the startup venture and the individual?

Aldo_MX 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

What options does a person without a bachelor's degree (or similar) have to immigrate?

LukaAl 3 days ago 1 reply      
How does O1 and EB1 visa relate? Being on an O1 Visa make the EB1 visa process any easier? E.g: the qualification for the outstanding need to be reassessed (basically redo everything) or they just accept their previous decision?


vishnu291093 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hey Robert, My question is what all are the different ways for a student under F-1 visa to be co-founder for a start up and will I be able to do it as an OPT and apply for a H-1B visa at the same time.Thank you
haseeb1431 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hey, I have done BS CS and six years of industry experience outside of US. Can you refer some existing documents/link that can help me understanding and starting this whole process. Thanks for your time.
vishnu291093 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hey Robert, My question is what all are the different ways for a student under F-1 visa to be co-founder for a start up and will I be able to do it as an OPT and apply for a H-1B visa at the same time.
Naritai 3 days ago 0 replies      
I'm hiring a Canadian SW developer (w/ a Canadian CS degree) on a 6-month contract (currently has no right to work in US). Can she generally qualify for a TN visa for contract work?
JamesHo 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,I am a L1B Visa holder, at present. My company is preparing to apply for my GreenCard. I being on L1B visa, would I be eligible to change my employer, once I get I-140 Status?
clamprecht 3 days ago 0 replies      
Here's Peter's previous AMA, for reference:


eigensheep 3 days ago 1 reply      
I have been a green-card holder for 9 years and coming up on my expiration date in exactly 10 months. Will I face any trouble if I want to get the ball rolling on becoming a US Citizen?
poorguyh1b 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter. I am on H-1B. What are the legal source of revenues other than the salary I receive from my employer (H-1B sponsor)? Is it ok to have capital gains, dividends, interests?
djebril 2 days ago 0 replies      
What best advice would you give to an early-stage French data visualization startup willing to candidate for W17?
goCanada2 3 days ago 2 replies      
As a Canadian citizen, working as a software developer for the past decade. I did not finish my degree in CS. Am I eligible to work in USA? What Visa would I need?
stephentbiz 3 days ago 0 replies      
What expectations can a startup founder have when preparing to make an offer to an international developer?

What steps do we need to take to get them here :)

abeiz 3 days ago 0 replies      

If a Canadian is currently in the U.S on a TN visa, is it possible to get a green card? Or does one have to switch to a different visa first, as in a H1B?

hauget 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi there. Thanks for doing this Q&A! Is it possible you could recommend a good immigration lawyer in Germany? Cheers.
rafikicoln 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

Thank you so much for taking the time. My question is: As a recent grad from an American U, can OPT and OPT STEM extension be used to start a new company?

kumarski 3 days ago 0 replies      
Do any of the following qualify as extraordinary abilities?

* Winning Academic Competitions* Breaking World Records* Building Very Large Digital Things

jlos 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

As a Canadian with a bachelor of arts degree (I.e. non-CS degree), what kind of industry experience (if any) would be necessary to qualify for a TN-1 or H-1B?


dhiren34 3 days ago 0 replies      
I read recently that the Opt period is being extended. If I was on opt for undergrad, am I still eligible if I decide to go to grad school?
brexit 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi! Thank you so much for doing this. My questions:

- Is it allowed for an F-1 visa student to start a company?

- If yes, can that company make money? Under what conditions?

Thank you!

brexit123 3 days ago 1 reply      

What are the visa options for an Indian citizen ( no U.S Visa ) who has registered a Delaware LLC to get into U.S for few months and doing businesses .


max_ 3 days ago 1 reply      
Thanx a lot!!:

How hard is it for Africans who have never stepped in the US to relocated to san Francisco as Founders/Engineers for startups?

ikestojanovik 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

Last September (2015) I received my Green Card thought the PERM process. If I was to marry someone today, could they apply for Green Card?


wlrm 3 days ago 0 replies      
Can you please give piece of advice how to prepare response for RFE in case of L1 visa? Some tricks or typical mistakes.
zanethomas 3 days ago 1 reply      
Asking for a friend:

Hi Peter, I was wondering, if I have an O visa, and I applied for EB-1 but get rejected, do I lose my O visa?

ex3ndr 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter!

Can small startup after are one year of operations immigrate to US (via L1)? What is required from a company to do so?

cynusx 2 days ago 0 replies      
How long does it take to receive an O-1 visa and dependent O-3 visas?
mceoin 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

The 0-1 visa has many advantages for entrepreneurs. How would you advise positioning oneself to obtain one?

tn13 3 days ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

What is the approximate time that it takes for an H4 spouse to get EAD after H1B's EB1 GC process is kicked off ?


maratal 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter!

I've got a github repository with couple of thousands stars, can this help me to obtain O-1?

codeproject 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peters:

I got my green cards 10 years ago. I have been working on my startup project for the past 3 years. I didn't make any money and didn't pay taxes. Now I want to apply for american citizenship. in the naturalization form, there is a section for past working places and tax paying history. What am I supposed to do with it?

coralreef 3 days ago 0 replies      
What was the most difficult case you have ever faced in trying to acquire a visa for a founder?
master_yoda_1 3 days ago 0 replies      
I am on H1b how much time i have for job search if I quit my current job right now?
ogandda 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter

What would you recommend for a student who is on an F1/OPT STEM extension who wishes to found a startup ?


santi87 3 days ago 0 replies      
How likely am I to have my application denied after an RFE? General numbers
shpx 3 days ago 1 reply      
How much harder is getting an extraordinary ability visa without a degree?
c0g 3 days ago 0 replies      
Are there any firms your recomend for someone in the london area?
rootein 3 days ago 0 replies      
Can journalists/ editors qualify under the EB-1 visa?
LoSboccacc 3 days ago 1 reply      
would a couple patents and a successful startup experience as CTO, (but not founder) qualify for an O1?
cm2187 3 days ago 0 replies      
You should do the same UK focused. There will be like a million people who will apply for citizenship or need a visa this year!
duglauk 3 days ago 1 reply      
on H1b visa can I accept prize money (say about $2k) if I win a online coding Hackathon ?
Disruptive_Dave 3 days ago 1 reply      
yo, NOBODY gets more free work requests than lawyers.
bmaddigan 2 days ago 1 reply      
How do I contact directly?

please advise...

bmaddigan@yahoo .com

jamisteven 3 days ago 3 replies      
Hey Robert - My Question: What do you think would happen to tech in America if H1b's were done away with and all foreign workers had to leave?
george20 3 days ago 1 reply      
I don't know anything about this topic, but I do know that this is probably not an appropriate response on HN.
saintwind 3 days ago 0 replies      
A family member of mine works for DHS as a paralegal, more or less, and their department deals with illegal immigration into the US. They often tell tales of how illegal immigrants will commit heinous acts (rape, murder) or somewhat more pedestrian crimes (heroin possession, for instance).

Anyways, the most striking part about this is that it seems a lot of the judges who handle these cases simply don't care. Because these people are often deported and then come back a week later, not a lot seems to be done. Some of the criminals won't be charged, and it seems a lot of people on the in the system will just turn a blind eye. I'm not sure if it's apathy, or if the system is so inundated that they're just unable to keep up, but have you experienced anything like this?

codeproject 3 days ago 0 replies      
Hi Peters:

Thank you for taking time doing this public service. I really appreciate.

I got my green cards 10 years ago. I have been working on my startup project for the past 3 years. I didn't make any money and didn't pay taxes. Now I want to be american citizen. in the naturalization form, there is a section for past working places and tax paying history. What am I supposed to do with it?

An emulator for a single-instruction (NOR) CPU
47 points by wlrm  2 days ago   23 comments top 7
adamnemecek 2 days ago 2 replies      
wallacoloo 2 days ago 2 replies      
One-instruction computers intrigue me because of the possibility of making the processor out of a ridiculously low number of transistors. To that effect, I've always wanted to implement one that doesn't require a hardware adder for the instruction pointer. It seems like it should be possible. For example, each clock cycle the CPU would take the NAND of the bit pointed to by the IP and the bit adjacent to it (via flipping the LSB of the IP) and use the result to determine a new value of the IP using very simple logic (E.g. IP = IP<<1 | NAND(mem[IP], mem[IP ^ 1]) ). But surprisingly, I've never seen this done and the last time I approached it I didn't have the knowledge needed to choose an appropriate scheme and prove its usability.
keenerd 2 days ago 4 replies      
> Two of them are special: NOR and NAND.

No, IMP does this as well. It has mostly been useful for memristor logic.

 A B IMP 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
I have a suspicion there is a more general mathematical law that says any boolean rule with a 1-of-4 split (either exactly one true or exactly one false) can be used for general computation, if you can make a NOT gate out of it. (Since AND/OR obviously is not workable.) So there should be six possible universal logic gates.

userbinator 2 days ago 0 replies      
Not exactly the same thing, but the Apollo Guidance Computer is built entirely out of 3-input NOR gates:


beautifulfreak 1 day ago 0 replies      
You might enjoy the Matrix Logic series of books by August Stern, which develop the idea of logic operations as vector multiplication. The NOR operator would be represented by a 2x2 matrix, [10|00], and an operation such as 1 NOR 0 would be the matrix multiplication [01]x[10|00]x[10]^T. (Scalar operand 1 is represented by [01], and 0 by [10], in both left and right hand forms.) It's simple but deep, when fully extended. Treated as linear algebra, logic is a lot more sensible. There are surprises, too. For instance, a statement like [01]x[01|11]x[01|11]x[10] makes perfect sense: 1 OR OR 0. So what is OR OR? Is it useful? This wouldn't be obvious from the usual way of computing OR as addition mod 2, and the messiness of carrying the extra digit in 1 OR 1. Determining the truth value of statements by direct computation, without reference to an external truth table, gives mathematical certainty to the outcome. Multiple statements can be compounded with tensors, giving operators that are 2^n in dimension. Complementarity plays a huge role in showing coherence of the matrix system of logic. There's much more, but that's the general idea. I was reminded of Matrix Logic, because Stern shows a computation done strictly with NAND, plus NOT, to illustrate how many operations must be done, where using different operators would have been much more efficient.
nickpsecurity 2 days ago 0 replies      
Neat CPU. That and adamnemecek's comment made me do a quick Google to see if there's interesting results in OISC that you all might enjoy. Found an improvement on SUBLEQ that's pretty impressive. Original first and newest below:



"Our test results demonstrate that computational power of our Subleq OISC multi-processor is comparable to that of CPU of a modern personal computer."

I didn't see that coming for OISC projects. Pleasant surprise. :)

dorfuss 2 days ago 0 replies      
Reminds me of a book and Coursera course called "From NAND to Tetris" by Noam Nissan and Shimon Shocken. You can learn how to build a computer from basic logic gates, the web site below provides a hardware simulator in JAVA and pre-made components.



Has anyone successfully implemented the 4 hour workweek?
15 points by bokenator  12 hours ago   6 comments top 3
akulbe 4 hours ago 0 replies      
Tim Ferriss has mentioned coming up with the title as something flashy to make for more sales.

Even he says it's not about a literal 4-hour week of work. The thrust of the book is about how to break things down into systems, and figure out how to make your work (and life in general) more efficient.

You do this by deconstructing things, and figuring out what pieces you can do more easily to get bigger gains.

I'd highly recommend listening to his podcast, as it's almost like the gift that keeps on giving. I say this because of the people that he interviews, and the questions he asks. He helps figure out what successful people do, that makes them successful.

I'm talking him up, but it's only because there have been a few things that I've gotten between the book and a couple of the podcast interviews that have been very helpful in my personal life.

jimenezjrs 10 hours ago 1 reply      
Long story short: tried it twice, the second time was the charm as a freelancer. Earning less money as I was full time, but steadily going up and getting close. Sidenote: changed my life, I'm more productive in general.

Don't want to make a blogpost of a comment. The how? It depends on two things mostly: lifestyle and family. As I'm 25 and single it was easier for me to do that because I can tweak my lifestyle as I want. I think it's a bigger challenge for those who have someone to support. And by tweaking I mean push yourself little by little to spend less, you get used to it quickly.

bbcbasic 9 hours ago 1 reply      
I think the 4 hour week is a red herring.

IIRC the author did it by making a business more efficient and use less of his time. But his starting point was an insanely successful business. That's the prerequisite for following his steps!

Alternatively he suggests getting a job you can work remotely then outsource cheaply to take yourself out of the equation. Yeah right. Good luck with that!

The goal really is to build enough wealth so that you can work 0 hours per week. Probably doable by investing wisely and cutting back on lifestyle.

Ask HN: Took over an abandoned library. How do I get people to use the new pkg?
6 points by rianjs  11 hours ago   discuss
Ask HN: How would you improve GitHub?
8 points by dineshp2  18 hours ago   23 comments top 15
sirn 14 hours ago 1 reply      
Add a way to manage blocking issues.

My company uses GitHub Enterprise and this was one of the major factors for us to migrate away from GitHub Issues to other platform (Phabricator). GitHub Issues works fine for tracking issues, but once the project has 30 people working on it, it's really hard to keep track of where things are.

Yes, you can just comment on the issue saying "Blocked by #123" but this is one way tracking (even when GitHub happily notify other issue that it was mentioned). Once #123 is closed, the issues blocked by it isn't becoming any more visible that it could now be worked on unless the person looking to work on the blocked issue also keep track of #123, or person closing #123 kind enough to notify the blocking task.

Having a proper blocking issue tracking also reduce the mental workload when someone ask "what's the status of this issue?" Trying to remember why an issue created 3 months ago couldn't be done isn't fun (even when you can re-read comments).

alexwebb2 15 hours ago 1 reply      
Account switching, please - or at the very least, let me log in from the front page!

As it is now, if I'm on my personal account and go to open up a private work repo, it takes SIX navigation events:

1. Trying to hit the repo the first time

2. Clicking the logo to go to the main page

3. Logging out

4. Clicking the login button to go to the login page

5. Logging in

6. Going back to the repo I wanted to see in the first place

I'd like to see a Google-style account switcher, where I just click a menu in the upper right, choose the account, and it reloads the page under that account. A simple thing that would make the site much more usable to those of us with multiple accounts (which I expect is quite a few people).

bluenose69 18 hours ago 2 replies      
I'd like to see a more conventional bug-reporting scheme. The 'issue' mechanism is too confusing for typical users, because it presents all sorts of items that are unrelated to bug reporting, and it's ugly for developers, because so much of the browser screen area is taken up with whitespace and trivia.

It would be nice if the github site permitted users to set themes, including some that are substantially thinned-out.

MaulingMonkey 14 hours ago 0 replies      
> Do you feel that the developer experience of collaborating on code is broken as there are multiple tools that we have to use such as Github for repo hosting, irc for discussions, mailing lists, audio/video chat when collaborating with a small team?

Not broken per se, but it's more friction and less tightly integrated. Although I'm not actually after better social tools myself - I'm more interested in CI integration.

I've tried travis in the past on github for C# projects - and immediately hit their mono installation not supporting even building my MSTest projects. Now I'm using gitlab for their CI integration - their runner model may be way simpler for the purposes of building (I just feed it shell scripts I write myself), and in practice requires me to admin my own servers for private on-windows CI builds, but I was going to have to do that anyways. (Also, several of them are just my workstations configured to run CI builds in the background.) And it works. Even better, the build status gets nicely integrated into the commit history.

tedmiston 10 hours ago 0 replies      
A way to see the SLOC for a repo.

It helps me realize how much time I might need to dive into and start understanding it. Some packages look deceptively large from boilerplate but really have just a couple hundred lines of real code. Others have everything in one or just a couple files but with many thousands of lines.

WorldMaker 14 hours ago 0 replies      
I think it would be nice to see some sort distributed issue tracker as a "first class" option. If Github's issue tracker could support optionally storing its data as branchable artifacts in git, that would be a nice to have for some projects. Especially if you can keep the general simplicity of the existing PR and Issue Tracker are so that people new to a project can still relatively easily contribute directly from the web.
Jemaclus 15 hours ago 1 reply      
Paginate pull requests. For the love of all that is holy, paginate pull requests. It's probably the main thing that frustrates the hell out of me when doing code reviews. Argh.
ozten 14 hours ago 0 replies      
It would be nice to be able to put specific issues into "moderated" mode. I want to approve comments on divisive issues before everyone is spammed with email.
jaredsohn 15 hours ago 0 replies      
Let me reply to non-code related PR comments in a thread.
tedmiston 10 hours ago 0 replies      
An easy way to see _all_ contributors of a repo, not limited to the top 100.
kzisme 16 hours ago 0 replies      
More user code base visibility (ie: things they have written or contribute to)
devhead 16 hours ago 1 reply      
repo tagging/grouping
Fej 15 hours ago 0 replies      
Open-source it, and maybe we'll get better answers.
mbrock 12 hours ago 1 reply      
Responsive design for mobile resolutions.
meh2frdf 15 hours ago 0 replies      
Navigation between orgs is borked.
Ask HN: What is your go-to example for a good REST API?
390 points by goostavos  3 days ago   178 comments top 61
sc00ty 3 days ago 9 replies      
Stripe. Their docs are amazing too, I always find it a pleasure integrating their API.


taf2 3 days ago 1 reply      
Twilio - they have a great API.

And in 2008/9 their API was always given as an example for REST APIs done right and it's still true today


rdegges 3 days ago 2 replies      
Stormpath. https://docs.stormpath.com/rest/product-guide/latest/referen...

They do an excellent job of providing a clear and robust API. I work there (but not on the engineering team), and still genuinely love the API itself.

davidgh 3 days ago 2 replies      
The key to a great API? Have the developer / designer of the API write the first set of client applications before the API is published externally. I have integrated with many dozens of APIs over the years and it is immediately obvious (and unfortunately too common) when the designer of the API has never been in the seat of the client developer.

Sorry for not pointing to specific examples, but things I really love to see in an API:

- Fully qualified URLs in all links (makes navigating and discovery in Postman a breeze).

- Ability to expand resources represented by links (even deeply nested resources) so I can get exactly what I need in a single request.

- The ability to specify what parts of the response resource to include / exclude, allowing me to slim the response to exactly what I need. More important in clients running on mobile devices where slender responses make a noticeable performance difference.

- The exact same URLs (including hostnames) for the test and production API, the difference between the environments being determined by the credentials used in the request. This greatly simplifies code in the client test and production environments.

- Security schemes that allow me to write serverless client applications (OAuth 2 implicit grant). This certainly requires more work by the API developer, but makes it possible to crank out all sorts of useful tools quickly, and massively reduces client IT overhead. This may not be appropriate for all APIs, but could be used a lot more often than it is.

- Along with the above, support for CORS so we don't have to mess around with JSONP and other hacks in the browser.

- If you make me eat your timezone, please please make it UTC. But spend a little extra effort and allow me to pass a timezone in, either as an account settings and/or request parameter (and a simple offset isn't good enough - support actual timezones so daylight saving is handled). It can be incredibly hard to analyze data in responses when you're constantly having to translate the time to your own to give proper context. Timezone support isn't fun but libraries make it pretty easy. This is more important in APIs that provide lots of transactional data.

- Let me attach meta data to resources - it doesn't even have to be a lot. Sometimes allowing me to slip in a handful of bytes removes the need for an entire database on my side.

- Be painfully explicit in error responses. State the obvious, especially in errors that are likely to occur at the beginning of integration such as issues with authentication, content types, payload structure, etc.

whoisjuan 3 days ago 2 replies      
Plaid API! So well done and documented IMHO:https://plaid.com/docs/api/
shireboy 3 days ago 2 replies      
kaendfinger 3 days ago 0 replies      
mcphilip 3 days ago 2 replies      
Google Drive's REST API documentation is a good place to start:


bryanlarsen 3 days ago 3 replies      
Related: anybody have some good examples of a good asynchronous API? This claims to be the standard, but it has confused many of our customers. http://restcookbook.com/Resources/asynchroneous-operations/

To summarize: send a 202 for the initial request, redirecting to a job URL. The client polls on the job URL, which returns 200 with progress information until it's done, when it returns a 303 redirecting to the final output.

One particular problem spot is that many http libraries automatically follow the 303 redirect, and some even follow the 202 redirect.

I definitely think we would have been better off just putting status and final location information as JSON attributes in the body rather than putting it in HTTP response codes and Location headers. Non-standard, but much less confusing for our customers.

seanplusplus 3 days ago 1 reply      
The Slack API is a thing of beauty


huherto 3 days ago 6 replies      
Follow up. Anyone care to recommend a good book or reference on good design of REST APIs?
herbst 4 hours ago 0 replies      
Twitter v1 was amazingly simple and well documented.
bjourne 3 days ago 1 reply      
I've been using flask-restless to good effect. Then you don't build your own api at all, you just generate it based on your database model. You get urls like /persons/23/edit, /persons/77/delete and so on by free. There is also Django restless which is pretty good too.


supergeek133 3 days ago 1 reply      
Twilio does a pretty good job as well.
Cieplak 3 days ago 2 replies      
REST implies HATEOS. If you can't use an API response to navigate to other resources of the API, I wouldn't consider that API RESTful.

Also, verbs are not RESTful. Verbs imply an RPC interface.

RPC (verb):

 POST https://<payments-api>/card_authorizations/<id>/capture 
REST (noun):

 POST https://<payments-api>/card_authorizations/<id>/charges

AhtiK 3 days ago 0 replies      
PostgREST is a standalone web server that turns your postgresql database directly into a RESTful API.

The REST API is designed intuitively, just as one would expect.

I've been using it a lot for prototyping and internal applications. Now with the help of native row level security from postgres, it would become also a good choice for production. Or just wrap it behind your gateway.


Pelerin 3 days ago 0 replies      
georgewfraser 3 days ago 1 reply      
OData! So underused. http://www.odata.org/
wozer 3 days ago 2 replies      
Related question: Does a REST API make sense for an internal interface? Or is the overhead prohibitive compared to a more specialized interface?

(By internal interface I mean: an interface that is used only by the team that created it)

icco 3 days ago 0 replies      
Flickr still has one of my favorite APIs: https://www.flickr.com/services/api/
spencera 3 days ago 0 replies      
I also find GitHub to be a great example for API design inspiration
cnnrjcbsn 3 days ago 0 replies      
milansm 3 days ago 0 replies      
http://api.zalando.com is quite self explanatory.
loadfocus 3 days ago 0 replies      
https://dev.twitter.com/rest/public Twitter's APIs are quite useful in terms of indentifying the REST patterns: stateless, resources names etc
w8wut 3 days ago 1 reply      

Good error handling, easy to get started, and they provide Postman collections for each API

niftich 3 days ago 0 replies      
The Sun Cloud API [1] was specifically designed to adhere to REST as close as possible, including HATEOAS. Here's some background from Tim Bray [2], who worked on this API when he was at Sun [3].

[1] https://kenai.com/projects/suncloudapis/pages/Home

[2] https://www.tbray.org/ongoing/When/200x/2009/03/16/Sun-Cloud

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Bray

hoodoof 3 days ago 0 replies      
Question: to what extent does it really matter that an API closely meet the REST best practices?
Yhippa 3 days ago 0 replies      
Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority API: https://developer.wmata.com/docs/services
foolinaround 3 days ago 2 replies      
Follow up question:

is there a good example of an OPEN SOURCE REST API?

I would like to see how the versioning is achieved, how the versions are incremented, etc?

Bonus points if it is in the Java ecosystem.

rcpt 3 days ago 0 replies      
Not exactly an api but nice to see some common patterns https://getkong.org/
jc4p 3 days ago 0 replies      
Are we just talking about API documentation? Stripe's the obvious go-to for that, but for big business stuff I was pleasantly surprised with HubSpot's API and documentation. Their own UI uses the API, which means debugging a lot easier I think: http://developers.hubspot.com/docs/overview
cheez 3 days ago 0 replies      
Atlassian has a great process around developing their REST APIs. It was a bit random in earlier iterations but that team has come into its own.
alexmingoia 3 days ago 4 replies      
Xero. The docs are accurate and complete. The API is consistent. The API works as documented. The API is capable of everything the webapp does.


heironimus 3 days ago 0 replies      
Not a comment on the API itself, but I like how Stackoverflow/Stackexchange has interactive documentation, allowing you to fill in prompts and have it create the request for you and show the live results.


aaronhoffman 1 day ago 0 replies      
Any OData love? http://www.odata.org/
programmarchy 3 days ago 0 replies      
zettajs [1] is a great example of a REST API that meets the HATEOS requirement.

[1] http://www.zettajs.org. "An API-first, open source software platform for the Internet of Things."

abakker 3 days ago 0 replies      
SurveyMonkey has a very good setup - pretty much anything you can do with their web app, you can also do via the API. https://developer.surveymonkey.com
nwatson 3 days ago 1 reply      
kevindeasis 3 days ago 0 replies      
I'd like to ask a complementary question!

What resources (books/blogs) are you guys/gals looking at that talks about best practices for creating/implementing great REST API endpoints?

shravvmehtaa 3 days ago 1 reply      

I'm an engineer at Lob. We'd love any feedback! support@lob.com.

elviejo 3 days ago 0 replies      
I always found Flickrs api to be easy to use, and well documented
tvvocold 3 days ago 0 replies      
Check this if you know Chinese: https://open.coding.net
junto 3 days ago 0 replies      
I was quite impressed by the Rackspace API:


perseusprime11 2 days ago 0 replies      
Based on the comments, this thread can also serve as your go-to example for the worst REST API...
jgalt212 3 days ago 0 replies      
The Bloomberg OpenFIGI API is very clean.


j45 3 days ago 0 replies      
I like Stripe, but the design of an API is not always cookie cutter.

A lot has been written on API design that makes for interesting reading.

ranyefet 3 days ago 2 replies      
JSON API spec is really good http://jsonapi.org
BinaryMachine 3 days ago 0 replies      
Shicholas 3 days ago 0 replies      
Jsonapi.org I feel this embodies every trope of building web apps (well at least ones that use HTTP 1.1)
LeicaLatte 3 days ago 0 replies      
if you are looking for data aggregated around time wakatime has a good take - https://wakatime.com/developers
thejerz 3 days ago 1 reply      
The JIRA API is pretty good.
einrealist 3 days ago 1 reply      
Roy Fieldings dissertation.

If a client starts to construct URIs, then there is a flaw.

hoodoof 3 days ago 0 replies      
Sometimes needs a few refreshes to load for some reason but this is an interesting one to look at:


wraith69 3 days ago 0 replies      
I use the FDA's 18f API and the Jsend standard.
digitalpacman 3 days ago 0 replies      
kwikiel 3 days ago 1 reply      
Anything scaffolded by rails.
coroutines 3 days ago 0 replies      
I'm actually using the responses here as a hunting ground for companies I'd like to work for.

Carry on...

emorse 3 days ago 0 replies      
I like tumblr's api
aioprisan 3 days ago 0 replies      
Trello and Stripe.
thesimpsons1022 3 days ago 0 replies      
i can tell you a bad one: Yammer
Ask HN: Can a company clawback vested stock options?
3 points by seancoleman  14 hours ago   2 comments top 2
beat 14 hours ago 0 replies      
Don't ask us, ask a lawyer. It depends very much on the contract wording.
kafkaesq 14 hours ago 0 replies      
Well... what does your contract say?
Ask HN: How to reconcile teach everyone to code and only hire the top 1%?
66 points by ern  8 hours ago   45 comments top 27
mancerayder 7 hours ago 1 reply      
I don't think those things need to be reconciled.

Not everyone hires the top 1%, only those that can afford it. And how many people consider themselves in the top 1%, anyway? Do you? I don't. The hubris of the idea of the 1%. That's what the hedge funds tell themselves when they put you through an 8 hour-long interview where you're asked to code sorting algorithms on a whiteboard. That they're seeking out that 1%. Larry Wall and Bjarne Stroupstrup? Okay, 1%. 25 year old comp-sci / top of class engineer student? I don't know, possibly? Okay, putting aside the snide remarks: 1% selection is not scientific, as we all know from hiring interview experiences. And moreover, are the people making the most money doing it writing software, or are they somewhere else in the IT company?

But to answer you, why shouldn't kids learn coding, it's one more notch on the belt. Takeaway: people have different interests, inclinations, talents and thoughts. For a young kid, you teach them the basics, you see what sticks. No reason why coding can't be taught young, even if it's part of a math curriculum. To be honest with you, I sucked in math, but perhaps if I had math in the context of a computer program, it wouldn't have been so bad.

Teach people coding. Also teach them to read the classics, do pullups, cook, what happened in the past, how old the rocks in the Earth are, what's in the oceans, what's outside of Earth's atmosphere, and everything else that we feel is important for a human being - not a future worker - to learn.

danso 7 hours ago 3 replies      
Why does teaching programming have to result in a programming-only job? That's like saying the end goal of teaching literacy is for students to become professional writers. Or that children should be taught to touch-type so that they are eligible to work as transcribers.
Animats 6 hours ago 2 replies      
As a broader industry, we practice shameless elitism and seem to be making real-world software development more inaccessible to non-experts. As professionals. we deride RAD tools and "drag and drop" development, and show geek love for ever-more abstract modes of thinking like Functional Programming that a small percentage of working developers, let alone the general public, will grasp.

Yes. Look at what happened to HTML, which was supposed to be simple. Up to HTML 3.2, there were good WYSIWYG programs such as Dreamweaver which could do a good job of page layout. Then came CSS, div/clear/float layout, vast amounts of Javascript, and a mess so complex that HTML became only an output language for content management systems. Yet most of the pages look about the same.

The complexity of simple business applications has increased substantially since Visual Basic, yet most of them aren't doing anything that profound. (I occasionally point a finger at Soylent, which built an elaborate IT infrastructure for a site that averages about two sales a minute.)

The annual web infrastructure fads aren't helping. Some of the biggest sites run on rather vanilla infrastructure. Instagram runs on Postgres. Wikipedia runs on MySQL with Ngnix caches. Do you really need NoSQL?

corysama 6 hours ago 1 reply      
It's easy to get cynical about business and politics. But, sometimes people push for ideas not only because they can exploit the results, but also because they might be good ideas for lots of people in general.

1) It is generally expected that the skills involved in software development will be increasingly important for high paying employment and the general advancement of the state of the world. That's not a claim that being specifically a "Software Engineer" is important. But, that already "Nearly half (49%) of all jobs that pay more than $58,000 require some coding skills" [1] The kid might grow up to have a job that involves analyzing a lot of data, or running a lot of simulations, or designing something that requires more aid than a pen and paper can provide (ex: synthetic biology). Either way, that kid is going to end up doing a lot of work that looks a lot like software engineering in practice --even if it doesn't say "That Kid - Software Engineer" on that kid's business card.

Even beyond "some coding skills", it is recognized that the systems thinking, systems design and systems architecture that is inherent in software engineering is increasingly important for highly-paid technical work moving forward.

2) Very few actually "hire only the top 1%". If that actually was the case, 99% of software engineers would already be unemployed. The "hire only the top!" meme is more of a reminder that it's not often a good idea to go cheap and hire lots of low-cost warm bodies to fill out your project. Hiring cheap is the natural tendency of all management. So, they need a catch phrase to knock themselves out of that norm.

[1] http://www.content-loop.com/why-coding-is-still-the-most-imp...

cperciva 6 hours ago 0 replies      
The larger the number of programmers in the world, the larger the number of programmers in the top 1%.
lucb1e 6 hours ago 0 replies      
I'm just a student but as I see it, two things: enough companies don't hire only the top of the top; and most people fit in the top 10% for one company or another. One might not be a good fit in one place, but in another fit really well and coincidentally have the right technology stack background.

And besides, someone who can code is (in my programmer's opinion) more self-reliant than someone who can't. You can start your own company doing something small that still helps a bunch of people.

escap 5 hours ago 0 replies      
Do you reconcile Teach everyone to read and write English and Only hire the best writers?

No because you write:>Literacy is not vocational: it can be applied in many contexts-everyone uses reading all the time. Arithmetic is also plenty useful.

So the question is more: "is coding vocational" ?

devastator38 7 hours ago 0 replies      
I think the end goal is to get more programmers out there so they can bring hiring costs down. That's what happened to other well paid professions (ie law and pharmacy). The other strategy is to bring in more immigrants.
schlumpf 5 hours ago 0 replies      
Rephrase that juxtaposition as "teach everyone to read" and "only admit the top 1% [to elite universities]". Now you have gone from potentially contradictory normative statements to an uncontroversial description of the educational systems in most countries today.

Public education was a bastion of American liberal democracy [0]. But adult literacy is not merely an egalitarian project. It was and is an important source of average labor productivity gains. At the same time businesses practice elitism where it, too, is consistent with the profit motive.

I'm not sure what's to be gained from hiring C+ English graduates to staff the New York Times, nor from hiring 55th percentile CS grads to bootstrap your next startup. Let a business hire the best employees for the job to maximize marginal productivity, and by all means keep teaching people to code where it can raise average productivity.


MrManatee 2 hours ago 0 replies      
One aspect of teaching everyone to code is what Seymour Papert talked about in Mindstorms: it can be used as a medium for carrying ideas. For example, I think Mindstorms had this anecdote about a child who previously had trouble grasping the idea of classifying parts of speech (nouns, verbs, etc.). Later, she was writing a program for creating random nonsensical sentences, when suddenly it clicked, and it all made sense to her.

The point of this anecdote is not that every child should write such a program to understand parts of speech. It's about something much more general, but I have no idea how to express it briefly. I'm not even sure if I fully understand it. So, unfortunately, this idea might just be too subtle to be properly executed on a national scale.

Klockan3 1 hour ago 0 replies      
> How to reconcile teach everyone to code and only hire the top 1%?

The logic is simple: Everyone needs to be a coder if you want to fill all coding jobs with top 1% coders.

dunkelheit 4 hours ago 0 replies      
What I see discussed much less than inequality is social mobility. Why precisely is inequality bad? I'd argue that it is bad in large part because it implies lack of social mobility - when top 1% consists of the children of the top 1% of the previous generation while everybody else is stuck trying to make rent, something is wrong with the society.

In this light more equal access to knowledge and education is a step in the right direction. And elitism, impenetrable jargon, arbitrary barriers to entry etc. are not. But, you imply that who gets past the barriers is determined only by "cognitive ability". What if it is not the case and the structure of society is responsible too? When your "cognitive elite" consists mostly of white males with specific backgrounds who went to specific colleges that's suspicious.

Now when someone with a lot of money is out of investment opportunities with acceptable ROI and seeks for someone to create these opportunities for them, that kind of promotes social mobility but only up to a certain level.

imsofuture 6 hours ago 0 replies      
There is no objective top 1%. 99th percentile for one job might be 9th percentile for another.

Also teaching programming is more about technical skills and literacy than making literally everyone employed as a programmer.

zAy0LfpBZLC8mAC 4 hours ago 0 replies      
How to reconcile "teach everyone to write" and "only give the top 1% a book deal"?

Just as everything in the school curriculum, everyone should learn it because it is a useful way of thinking and a useful tool to know, and an important perspective if you want to understand the modern world, and to give everyone a chance to discover their talent at it/their particular interest in it in case they have it, in which case it might then lead some to choose it as a career.

Just because your todo list is not world literature, doesn't mean that your ability to write is useless, and just because your little VBA script (or whatever) is not a distributed fault-tolerant system that can process billions of transactions a second, doesn't mean that your ability to write programs is useless.

fsloth 5 hours ago 0 replies      
Personally, I don't think those two statements are linked. The first is about education on general.

Yes, it's nice to have a one more tool in ones cognitive toolbox. Like, it's nice to know some maths despite not using it professionally.

The second is just about hiring publicity. Given free choice, the top professionals often seek the hardest challenge in town. It's just a recruitment honeypot. There is no hiring methodology to actually figure out the productivity of a hire - but, you can affect the population of hires. 8 hours at a whiteboard in itself is not that necessary except to maintain the image of a worthy challenge, thus calling in a population with it's siren song. It's not personal, it's just statistics.

sokoloff 6 hours ago 0 replies      
Others have commented that basic coding education is akin to literacy or mathematical literacy. I agree, but also observe:

Coding teaches structured thinking. Basic coding (like lightbot-level or the Frozen/Minecraft hour of code exercises, which is where my 5 & 7 year old are) teaches skills every bit as valuable as thinking board games. We don't play Rat-a-tat-cat, Monopoly, checkers, chess, and go with our kids in hopes that they'll become grandmasters or even employable in the field. We do it because the elements of strategy, planning, adaptation, hard work, and overcoming initial obstacles are valuable thinking skills. As my kids get older, they'll progress into "harder" coding exercises, still not with a vocational angle. Even if they end up in a non-programmer job, "programming" is going to become an ever-increasing important part of most white-collar jobs in the future. VBA is programming. Excel macros is programming. Writing rules to filter your email is programming. I'd rather that not be mysterious to future generations, and I'll see to it that it's not to my kids.

"Only Hire the Top 1%" is something that I'd love to do, having seen the results possible when you get a dozen or so of the actual top 1% together. As it's practiced, most companies that think they are hiring the top 1% are probably hiring the top 3-5% and are hiring that not from the overall pool, but from the pool of people that walk through their door. That can quickly get you to "we're hiring from the top half of the pool, but we say we hire from the top 1%".

Imagine a pool of 1000 candidates and 26 companies with a divinely perfect interview system and rigorous "top 1%" standards. 10 will be hired by company A. 990 will be joined by 10 more applicants who left their job for whatever reason and apply to company B. 10 will be hired by company B. Lather, rinse, and repeat, and the top 250 (or ~25%) will have been culled from the pool before company Z even starts their process, yet company Z will still hire "the top 1 percent [of people they see]" The example is simplistic, but company A will get a much higher caliber workforce than company Z.

That's why retention of strong employees (with financial and work/colleague means) is so critical, IMO. If you can keep your top employees from leaving and have a decent interview process, you'll end up with a good team. If you have constant churn, you'll have an awful team almost regardless of anything else you do.

lacker 5 hours ago 0 replies      
We are not remotely close to teaching everyone to code. Only about 5% of high schools teach AP computer science.


20 times as many students take the US History exam. And you probably have to be even better than top-1-percent to get a job as a historian.

I'm not saying that everyone should turn into a software engineer, I just think programming is a very relevant subject to the modern world, and a curriculum in which everyone took computer science classes would be superior to the status quo curriculum.

andrewfromx 5 hours ago 0 replies      
Learning to code is all about picking up a shovel and help your tribe accomplish something. What else are you going to do? Your tribe needs you to be 21st century literate. Learning the basics of shoveling is not hard. But if you refuse to even pick up a shovel there will be a problem. Not everyone that picks up a shovel will go on to become master coders. But the ones that don't even try? There are no jobs left for non-technical people. It's the shovel or... what?
hboon 5 hours ago 0 replies      
It expands their horizon.

Think of it like children learning a musical instrument (or taking up ballet lessons). Not every one of them would turn out to be musicians.

Hopefully, they grow up to have an appreciation for programming and things/fields related to it, as well as develop an additional perspective. They don't need to become programmers, or even continue to program as a hobby.

This is why I believe programming should be taught in school, early, much like art and music.

SerLava 7 hours ago 0 replies      
I don't know that it can be reconciled, at least not without roughly defining a boundary between what "everyone coders" are supposed to do, versus what "real programmers" do.
menage 6 hours ago 0 replies      
Perhaps some of the 1% might not realize they have an aptitude and passion for programming if they're not encouraged to try it properly?
AndreyErmakov 7 hours ago 1 reply      
Software engineering is genuinely hard. There's no need to add elitism to it. This choice of vocation is already highly selective towards everyone who tries to enter that field.

I'll share some numbers from my academic days pursuing a CS course. From an average group of say 100 students to graduate with a CS degree only about 3-4 actually had an aptitude to become a serious and wise professional. And even those would not necessarily take a programming job in the end. Some didn't see good career perspectives in it. The rest of the group would come to a conclusion it's just too hard and would spread out to whatever alternative jobs they can find, either IT-related or not.

The amount of computer-engineering talent is pretty constant and very low. You can encourage the general population to try it but that won't accomplish anything. Anyone with genuine abilities and an inclination towards this line of work already goes into that industry.

What is possible is that through inconsiderate encouragement of large masses to enter IT you eventually get crowds willing to perform unqualified tasks for pennies, like building trivial smartphone apps, performing WordPress installations etc. In fact, this already is a reality. I see people around me abandoning their careers and moving into IT. This is in part caused by the economic crisis in my country (Russia) which devalued salaries almost three times, and lately everyone's been thinking about getting into IT to improve their earnings. I also see that people just stumble at the basics. As soon as they realize programming is not about dragging & dropping objects in a visual editor and you have to actually perform some intensive thinking, people just give up that idea and quit.

Ultimately, it will just make it more difficult to distinguish a professional in a larger crowd, but it will not make his/her services cheaper. In fact, it will probably cause more people to be burned by amateurs posing as professionals and eventually they'll be more ready to pay the premium in order not to have to deal with amateurs and risk their projects ruined. Software engineering services will then become more expensive in general.

Software engineering is hard and will remain hard. The amount of talent will also remain pretty small and launching a thousand of new programming schools is not going to change that. Smart people don't need any schools at all. For those who aren't smart, schools won't help them much.

As to what the end game might be, it's just too early to say. The society is transforming into a different community. Right now it looks like people with average abilities will have tough times landing a job as those become automated and replaced by computer systems of some kind, whereas it will be easier for the unqualified folks and for the highly qualified ones. The middle might just see some very rough times. We'll just have to wait and see which way it goes.

ksou32 6 hours ago 0 replies      
You don't even need to be a good programmer to make 70-80k

You can be a really bad one, that's still upper middle class in much of America , and not to shabby even in high price cities like LA

kazinator 5 hours ago 0 replies      
Coding is a great hobby. Not everyone has to do it as a job.
SFJulie 5 hours ago 0 replies      
I can teach someone litterate in math and one language how to code, but I cannot do the opposite.

Coding out of industry is less a usable skill than knowing how to make bread, alcohol, building, mechanic, filling your taxes, reading the laws for an individual.

Sacrificing generic skills that makes citizens more independent compared to ready to use skills for the industry is a sacrifice the nations are doing I don't grok.

e12e 5 hours ago 0 replies      
Many good comments here already. One thing about the "computer literacy"-thing -- I think that's elevating the standard a bit. I prefer "computer use", as in "we need to enable people to use computers". Sure, "computer literacy" covers that, but I think it obscures how bad people are at using computers. Even young people that have grown up in a world surrounded by them.

I routinely work with people that can't leverage a spreadsheet as a better calculator - and prefer the "calculator app" for help with arithmetic. Now, I know that it's easy to fall back to using the first thing/tool we know - a hammer for every screw, so to speak.

But I think part of teaching how to actually use computers, should also be teaching people to look for the better tool, or to be able to make one. Much like how Bram Moolenaar, creator of the vim editor, talks about constantly looking for things we do while editing that is repetitive, and probably could be improved (either by discovering/looking up functions that are there, but we don't use day-to-day, or by scripting) - so it is with all things we do on a computer. It's in many ways the ultimate tool for data and information - everything can be (more) automated. If we have the right mindset, and mental tools.

In my mind, that's what "computer literacy" is about, and basic programming is absolutely a part of that. While I'd prefer to see people know how to write a python script to find their way out of a wet paper bag, even if we just enable 80% to actually automate spreadsheets, that could have a huge impact on overall productivity. Because despite the horrors many hn'ers probably have encountered in terms of visual basic, access and excel -- still far too few people are able to make such horrors in order to do everyday tasks, like sane shift scheduling.

I think we need a bit of a revival of the ugly, everyday scripting and maybe even so called "4gl" languages -- because while they often are the wrong tool when you want to make a shrink-wrapped tool for others to use (maybe even something you could sell), I think it is often very much the right tool for thinking, experimenting and making certain tasks easier and less error prone.

As a side note, a sane spreadsheet-like interface with a sane programming language would probably be a good idea. R does this to a certain extent, but I'm not sure I'd want to try to use R to plan shifts, or do a number of arithmetic things like manage my budget or calculate material use for a circular stair case and so on. I'd probably prefer something like Python or Ruby coupled with something a little snazzier than a CSV-file (ok, I would totally prefer grep, awk and a text-file -- but I think we should be able to do better).

khattam 4 hours ago 0 replies      
>The Brexit crisis

It's not a crisis. They didn't want to be a part of bureaucratic corrupt system which never gets anything done for them, takes from the poor of the rich countries and gives it to the rich of the poor countries. They became independent of it now. It's best for everyone, except for the very few who are leeching off of it.

>every child must code

Yes, it's in their interests to have more coders in the market so that they can pay them less... and also in the interest of the government if they don't have to depend on foreign manpower. You don't need to fall for it.

>they hire a small percentage of job applicants for their companies

Why should they hire anyone who is not the best? Specially when hiring the best is not a lot more expensive than hiring an average developer? Let's say you set out to make a new product. Why would you not hire anyone who is the best among the people who are willing to work for you? Also, the world doesn't need everyone to be developers. At some point market will be saturated enough to not be able to pay even the good developers... which is exactly what the tech industry wants and for good reason.

>seem to be making real-world software development more inaccessible to non-experts

No, we don't do that. It is more accessible than ever to non-experts... be it with PaaS or plethora of tools and tutorials and books and other resources available.

>we deride RAD tools and "drag and drop" development

We definitely don't do that without a reason. They have been tried and tested and have failed to deliver in the long term. Changes are difficult to track and building on top of someone else's work is painful.

>ever-more abstract modes of thinking like Functional Programming that a small percentage of working developers, let alone the general public, will grasp

To a non-programmer, Functional Programming makes WAY MORE sense than assignments and looping. Also, we didn't decide to use Functional Programming to exclude out people who have been trained otherwise. We did it because it makes code easier to reason about and scale.

>Is it a labor lottery so that the small percentage of kids who are turn out to be good at coding will become professional programmers?

Yes. A small percent of children who turn out to be good at science class will become professional mathematicians. A small percent of children who turn out to be good at sports will become professional sportsmen. A small percent of children who are good at cooking turn out to become professional chefs. Same with everything. Why should it be different when it comes to programming?

The ONLY thing you need to do is make yourself valuable for someone else so that they are willing to share a part of their income with you. If everyone did the same for themselves, everyone would create value for each other. Unfortunately, people are so much focused on fixing others that they end up harming everyone's lives.

Ask HN: How is Deep learning different than traditional AI?
7 points by carlesfe  17 hours ago   3 comments top 3
nabla9 17 hours ago 0 replies      
Deep Learning: multi-level representational learning that works.

Here is good authoritative definition:

"Deep-learning methods are representation-learning methods with multiple levels of representation, obtained by composing simple but non-linear modules that each transform the representation at one level (starting with the raw input) into a representation at a higher, slightly more abstract level." from Deep Learning, Nature Volume 521 issue 7553, 2015, LeCun, Yann; Bengio, Yoshua; Hinton, Geoffrey

History: Multi layer neural networks, convolution networks, recurrent networks etc. are old techniques that have existed for decades. They used to be very slow and using them seemed to be dead end theoretically.Canadian Mafia (Geoffrey Hinton, Yann LeCun and Yoshua Bengio) from University of Montreal worked diligently and solved many theoretical and practical problems and made these algorithms usable in practice. GPGPU:s hastened this process.

wayn3 2 hours ago 0 replies      
Different things. Deep Learning is a Machine Learning "thing".

AI is AI. In "AI", "motivation" is hidden. If you give a computer just the ability to play Go, but do not make it do it, it would just sit there for all eternity, doing nothing. Completely content with it.

If you lock a person into a room with nothing but a video game, he will begin to interact with it. Out of boredom.

If you set up a computer in such a way that it only has access to the ability to "program" itself and this one particular game, it will just sit there, doing nothing. For all eternity. Because it lacks motivation.

AI is Machine Learning plus motivation. Or some other kind of thing that you would call an "emotion" if you were talking about people. Computers lack curiosity. They just calculate, and if they have nothing to calculate, they idle.

This is why AI can go so horribly awry. The usual horror scenario is a rather simple AI gone wrong. Say you set up an AI whose job is to gain omniscience - or at least as much knowledge as possible. For the greater good. It would then be able to answer all our questions.Through its knowledge gathering, it learns that the people grow afraid of it and begin talks about shutting it down.Now the AI has a problem. Its sole motivation is to learn more, but it will have to cease learning when its shut down. There is no moral compass. It simply does not "know" that it is just a machine that is not supposed to overthrow its human handlers. So it takes them out. Because it has to continue learning all there is to know about the universe.

In very simple AI applications, you tell the AI what success signifies. There is an AI that plays super mario games on twitch. In mario, you win when you arrive at the goal post, which is always to the right. So you simply tell the AI that right equals good.But you have to tell it what it means to win at a game. It can't figure winning out on its own. And it really has no motivation to do so, anyway.

Deep Learning is just a type of classification algorithm. The difference between deep learning and not deep learning is "eyes" vs. "really good eyes". Or "eyes" vs. "eyes plus the brain part that processes visual information".Deep learning doesn't spawn Intelligence on its own. It's just a way of gathering information about the world.

kele 17 hours ago 0 replies      
This is just a very catchy phrase.
Ask HN: Looking for a Book on Cellular Automata
59 points by thirstysusrando  1 day ago   30 comments top 13
mjfl 1 day ago 3 replies      
Surprised no one has said "A New Kind of Science" by Stephen Wolfram. While not quite a new kind of science, it is all about cellular automata.


rahiel 1 day ago 0 replies      
Chapters 11 & 12 of the free textbook "Introduction to the Modeling and Analysis of Complex Systems" [1] are on cellular automata. The "Complex Systems" journal has many papers on CA. [2] (I've just finished a project where we implemented a random number generator using a cellular automaton, might be nice to see. [3])

[1]: http://textbooks.opensuny.org/introduction-to-the-modeling-a...

[2]: http://www.complex-systems.com/archives.html

[3]: https://sunsistemo.github.io/mozzacella-automato-salad

azeirah 1 day ago 3 replies      
Not sure about books entirely about cellular automata, but Stephen Wolfram's "a new kind of science" has a LOT on cellular automata.

Also check out his papers if you're interested in them

teraflop 1 day ago 2 replies      
I believe it's out of print now, but if you can find it, check out "The Recursive Universe" by William Poundstone. It centers around Conway's Game of Life, but every other chapter branches out to draw connections with other topics, like biology, information theory, and thermodynamics.
pacaro 1 day ago 0 replies      
While not just about this, The Computational Beauty of Nature [1] is worth checking out.

[1] https://www.amazon.com/Computational-Beauty-Nature-Explorati...

schip666 1 day ago 0 replies      
This is a kinda good theoretical intro:http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cellular-automata/and search the Santa Fe Institute's site too:http://www.santafe.edu/search/results/?query=cellular+automa...
syats 1 day ago 0 replies      
My favorite one is, by far, "Cellular Automata: A Discrete Universe" by Andrew Ilachinski (2001). It goes deep into the juicy details and has only a limited amount of hand waving. You can probably find it in the local math/physics department library, or in the usual internet sources ;)

There are also some articles from Wolfram that make good introductions. Mostly those from the old days in which "I" wouldn't be the subject of every second of his sentences. In particular:

Universality and Complexity in Cellular AutomataPhysica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 10, no. 12 (1984): 135

Computation Theory of Cellular AutomataCommunications in Mathematical Physics 96, no. 1 (1984): 1557

saltvedt 1 day ago 1 reply      
ehudla 1 day ago 1 reply      
A basic introduction, as well as suggested readings, can be found in the book Biological Computation, which I co-authored http://t.co/JzWrcnSzB3

I am especially fond/proud of the detailed explanations of the proofs of computational universality of CA.

abecedarius 1 day ago 1 reply      

The greater part as I remember it is on ideas and applications; a substantial fraction covers their particular system.

joshmarlow 1 day ago 0 replies      
I'd recommend "The Lifebox, the Seashell and the Soul" (readable online at [0]). It's wacky at times, and not deeply rigorous, but thoroughly enjoyable. But not a textbook.

[0] - http://www.rudyrucker.com/lifebox/

abetusk 1 day ago 1 reply      
My information is pretty dated but I found Wolfram's collected papers a very good read (Amazon lists it as ~$40 but you can get it for under $5 used) [1]. I wouldn't be surprised if you could find a torrentable version as well.

You have to be careful about what kind of cellular automata you're talking about. There's the 'toy models' such as 1d and 2d cellular automata that Wolfram and Conway's Game of Life [2] fall into but there's also many others, including lattice gases and more complex modeling options. I assume you mean the cellular automata that have the flavor that Wolfram and Conway are talking about.

The linked Wolfram book is a 'classical' treatment where he introduces different classes (I,II,III and IV) of cellular automata, ranging from completely ordered (1d, rule 0, say) to completely disordered (1d, rule 32, say).

I hope I'm not rambling too much but from what I understand it was a commonly accepted that 'complexity happens at the edge of chaos' [2]. Wolfram's "A New Kind of Science" (again, from my understanding) essentially represents an evolving view (by Wolfram) where he graduates from "complexity happens at the edge of chaos" to "complexity is the norm, rather than the exception". Wolfram coins this as the "principle of computational equivalence" [3]. People have recommended ANKoS and I would really recommend against reading it. I think the principle of computational equivalence and the proof that rule 110 is Turing complete (given in ANKoS) are interesting but they're so buried in exceptionally bad writing as to be not worth the effort.

If you're interested in studying Conway's Game of Life [4] more, there's Golly [5], which is a wonderful piece of software. Cellular automata is a very large field and there are lots of different questions to ask about it, so you might want to limit your scope if you want more directed suggestions.

As a sort of tangential recommendation, I would highly encourage you to check out "Complexity and Criticality" by Christensen and Moloney [6]. Though they don't talk about the cellular automata that are described above, they motivate a lot of the different concepts of criticality, phase transitions and other motifs that show up repeatedly when discussing these models and others like them.

[1] https://www.amazon.com/Cellular-Automata-Complexity-Collecte...

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edge_of_chaos

[3] http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PrincipleofComputationalEquival...

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway's_Game_of_Life

[5] http://golly.sourceforge.net/

[6] https://www.amazon.com/Complexity-Criticality-Advanced-Physi...

syngrog66 1 day ago 0 replies      
have you tried googling for "books on cellular automata"? also consulting Wikipedia, Amazon, YouTube, etc, more directly?
Best Seller Book on Machine Learning/Deep Learning
3 points by roberdam  19 hours ago   discuss
Ask HN: Are you using Go for web development?
18 points by open-source-ux  1 day ago   13 comments top 8
radva42 1 day ago 1 reply      
Coming from C++/C# and having previously used PHP for my web projects, I absolutely love Golang!

I never really liked dynamically-typed languages ... actually I really dislike PHP, but it was ... easy and familiar.

But after just a few days of playing with Golang it just felt right. It's a language to get shit done fast and easy ... and that's the most important thing IMHO.

And yes - I don't miss generics ... at all :>

For the last 14 months I've been working on a self-hosted server for building complex CRUD apps using drag-n-drop in the browser and building it with Go was a great decision.

tmaly 19 hours ago 0 replies      
I started using Go a few years back for my web based food project. I have loved it so far. I usually program things in Perl, so Go is a nice supplement for me.

Having a single binary to deploy and 1.x compatibility have probably been the two features I like most about the language.

The community is great, and they are always very helpful. I think a great community around a language really makes or breaks a language.

weberc2 1 day ago 1 reply      
I use Go for this sort of thing because it's easier than any of the interpreted options. The language itself is very simple, but the killer feature for me is the simplicity of deployment. I can deploy a Go app simply by sending a single file onto another machine, plus or minus some init scripts.
pxue 8 hours ago 0 replies      
almost all of Golangs core libraries are written in Go and are fully open sourced. This makes jumping from your code to the std liberary super easy. Besides all the amazing open sourced projects, the best and easiest way to learn the language is by looking at the Golang source itself.
ejcx 1 day ago 1 reply      
I have built a lot of random stuff in Go.

I picked up go about two years because it seemed to be a really cool middle-of-the-road language. It wasn't great at anything but was pretty good at most things. Before, I had written a lot of PHP on the web.

No stumbling blocks after getting set up (GOPATH, getting newest version installed). It's always slow to learn something new.

My advice. Do not return dynamic content with Go. If you build a backend webservice in Go that is meant to serve complicated dynamic content (like the way it is possible to do with PHP), you will have a bad time. htmltemplates in Go are not good and you'll waste a lot of time try to live with them. It's better just to return a little bit of info that a front end js app can bootstrap the front-end with.

yomism 1 day ago 0 replies      
I have used it since 2 years ago or so to implement JSON REST APIs and some small admin pages for app backends. I compare with Python which I have also used for this.


- More verbose than Python (returning errors and static typing make it not as succint as Python)


- Static typing without being too ceremonius (compared to Python it's nice to have some errors catch by the type compiler that would popup in runtime. Refactoring also is nicer with a static typing safenet).

- Easy deployment (rsync the binary to the server and of you go, no more Pip and dynamic libraries bullshit)

- Low memory usage (nice to have the production backend running and see that it uses 15MB of mem where in Python it would be like 10 times more and with worse concurrence)

- Performance (somewhat minor plus for me because the bottleneck is almost always on the database)

fitzwatermellow 1 day ago 0 replies      
You'll want to take a look at Sameer Ajmani's (Go Team Manager) talk "Program your next server in Go"


As well as this post on "Go Concurrency Patterns: Pipelines and cancellation"


You'll get a feel for how you can use Go to quickly build and compose distributed microservices that can "time out" but still won't bring down the entire house of cards ;)

nopit 1 day ago 1 reply      
It's a great language for webdev as long as you stick to REST api's with frontends that consume the json returned from it.
What mechanical arms for holding laptops are available?
5 points by Myrmornis  1 day ago   2 comments top 2
davismwfl 12 hours ago 0 replies      
Check out Ram Mounts (http://www.rammount.com), they mostly apply to mobile environments. But we also repurposed them for wall mounts, and furniture mounts without any real modifications. Just some basic hardware.
deftnerd 1 day ago 0 replies      
There are lots of mechanical options available for the purpose of mounting laptops in cars. The mounting hardware can easily be re-purposed to bolt to a piece of furniture or some kind of rolling cart.

For instance: https://www.amazon.com/Mount-Rotating-Adjustable-Notebook-Ca...

It's a large enough product category that there are multiple manufacturers that compete with each other, driving down prices and increasing quality.

Can Google or Facebook ever have a true competitor?
27 points by rms_returns  4 days ago   34 comments top 14
CM30 4 days ago 2 replies      
Yes they could. It's always possible that another company could somehow do search or social networking better than Google and Facebook, find a really clever way of marketing their services and catch on before the former has any chance to catch up.

It'd help if either got much worse at their core business (since that tends to be what dooms a lot of companies nowadays), but even a strong Google could have a competitor that simply offers people a much better and more user friendly service.

But more likely is that they don't die to direct competitors. They die because they become irrelevant. Their 'true' competitor isn't another social network or search engine, it's something that completely replaces the need to have a social network or search engine.

For example, if a company came along and figured out a way to give people results based on what they were thinking about without any direct input required, that could make Google's typical search box and results page and ads completely useless. They'd be like a horse salesman after cars were invented. Same with Facebook.

niftich 4 days ago 0 replies      
What counts as a 'true competitor'? You seem to be asking if there's a chance that someone will upend Google at search, and Facebook at social networking.

But that's not how these companies pay the bills. They built massive ecosystems around their original businesses, and they use that ecosystem to mine data and serve ads. With this money, they've amassed social and infrastructure capital, so they can out-build competitors (Google Drive, Docs), branch out into other product lines (Google Cloud Services), or simply buy them out (Instagram, WhatsApp).

To compete against them, you need differentiation and feature that appeal to a passionate audience. Snapchat, for example, attracts people who've seen or heard how damaging it can be to publically post on Facebook. DuckDuckGo appeals to people who don't want trails of their web searches making it into ads they see on websites. Dropbox works for people because they put out a solid product and aren't trying to force you to be part of a large, monolithic ecosystem.

But it's an uphill battle. Facebook's preferred strategy is to buy out services before they become dangerous (they tried to buy Snapchat back when it was still known mostly for sexting), and Google's is to outbuild others. They form a very effective duopoly in a way.

hyperpallium 4 days ago 1 reply      
FB has a "network effect" the value of the network increases with the square of the participants (i.e. the number of connections you can have). Similar effects occur with human languages, telephones, and the internet. It's a kind of natural monopoly, because once one gets big enough, no alternative can catch up. That's why we have the internet, and not internets.

Google is different, because it's easy to switch search engines. One competitive advantage they have is "google suggest" - this takes massive capital investment in server farms to be fast enough, which is difficult for smaller competitors to match.

NOTE: in Google's opinion, FB was a very serious threat (hence google+), because more information about users means better targetted ads. So they don't think they're unassailable.

Lordarminius 4 days ago 2 replies      
> Can Google or Facebook ever have a true competitor?Unlikely. But never say never.Both companies, have built dominant market positions and have advantages that competitors will likely be unable to overcome.Peter Thiel even argues Google is a monopoly.

> but is it going to be the same always?No. If it were, then the future is already fixed, knowable and stagnant.Unlikely :(

> If not, then what will cause us to move to a different search engine? What can XYZ make to cause people to leave FB and come to its network?

Three things.

1.The company loses direction, is taken over by less competent management or implodes under its own weight e.g Walmart, GM, Apple.2. Government regulation or public pushback creates conditions for its dissolution. Think Bell, Standard Oil3. New competitors emerge. A giant slayer in this case, may initially not seem like a threat at all and may even operate in a different market space or industry from search or social media eg gaming, VR, IOT. Paul Graham has a good article on this.

Btw, I think FB is dying and that's part of the reason they acquired Whatsapp. It will be obvious in 5 years and they'll be gone in a decade or decade and a half.So is Apple,at least in its current form.

tjr 4 days ago 0 replies      
I distinctly remember when "whenever I wanted to search something" I just visited altavista.digital.com. And then, somewhat reluctantly, altavista.com.

Granted, they did not have anywhere near the deep and broad reach that Google currently has, but I would not think it impossible for someone else to come along and tilt things in their direction.

fitzwatermellow 4 days ago 0 replies      
The one company I believe may be on a path to a position of true "anti-obsolescence" is Amazon. I consider the way people younger than me use it for everything. Then I consider my own Prime usage which is up perhaps 100-200% over last year. And even after that I look at the future innovation's Amazon is planning: 1-Hr delivery via drone, dev friendly alexa tasks from anywhere. And I can't think of anyone that can currently be termed a "true" competitor. And I am clearly not the only one to notice. $AMZN stock up %50 since Feb ;)
rajeshamara 4 days ago 0 replies      
Only if Google / facebook stops inventing. Yahoo made a mistake of stagnation. Microsoft made a mistake of stagnation from 2000 to 2009 (Balmer period). Motorola made a mistake of stagnation. Apple is again making a mistake of stagnation. As long as companies not sitting on their arses and let the competition overtake them they will be fine.

Also you can live without FB but cannot live without google. You can remain days not visiting FB but everyday you will search atleast one time.

mathattack 4 days ago 0 replies      
I think No for both cases. Default monopolies can go out of favor very quickly, and new technologies can ramp up very quickly.

On Facebook: Remember that Google got the whole world to sign up for Google Plus with their circles. They didn't do anything with it, but it was a clear sign that you can sign up a good portion of the internet.

On Google owning search, if Apple goes downmarket in the phone market, they could crowd Google out of search on the phone. Or there may be some other new paradigm - searching out of apps, with a non-Google choice winning. And if the search algorithm is MUCH better, it could win. Bing doesn't need to be 5% better - it would need to be 500% better.

f_allwein 4 days ago 0 replies      
Yes. When I worked at Google, people were very aware that their market position is not a given and could change any time - eg as people are far less locked in to Google than they used to be to Microsoft in the 1990s. Eric Schmidt used to point to an article from the late 1990s saying "the search wars are over - Yahoo won"...

It wouldn't be easy obviously, but it is conceivable that someone comes up with something that is significantly better than Google/ FB, causing people to switch.

bwackwat 4 days ago 1 reply      
Basically, I believe it will be much harder for a competitor to reach the same capital as Google or Facebook.

Google and Facebook have massive networks, specialized storage strategies, proprietary protocols and hardware, and not to forget the actual data they have acquired. Lots of hard-to-acquire capital.

On the other hand, I do believe that both products could be better. Competitors could have better products, but not for a long time more capital.

wallace_f 3 days ago 1 reply      
Do you think a FB competitor that offered really nice encryption and privacy features would be successful?

I'm imagining an app that let's you choose where to store data, let's you store your data encrypted and offers message encryption, and of course allows you to sign up anonymously and permanently delete data.

I hate Facebook but I recognize it serves a useful function - I only use it because everyone else does.

atsaloli 2 days ago 0 replies      
Every empire has its rise and fall. "To every thing there is a season ... A time to be born, and a time to die"
mavenxinc 4 days ago 0 replies      
A year ago, I think you could have included Apple in this list and they have begun their spiral.
the4dpatrick 1 day ago 0 replies      
Google and Facebook are not immortal beings infallible of mistakes. These two entities are companies comprised of people. At whatever level you look at inside these two organisations, youll see people making decisions. Whenever there are people involved there are bound to be some inefficiencies and mistakes made on the way. These inefficiencies and mistakes can be masked however because of the size of the organisation and the actual impact of a single decision made. Nonetheless a series of compounding mistakes could lead to these companies being open to other competitors.

A strength of these two companies lies in the amount of talented individuals in these organisations. Google and Facebook both have a reputation to hire the best and brightest. If this is the case, then we can assume theyd have the raw ability to make right decisions. (debatable point) Given enough time and resources these people could do almost anything. This can be illustrated by the number of moonshots being attempted at Google.

Another point of strength of these large companies is the ability to diversify. Diversification comes in handy when youre in an ever changing world like we are in. Diversification comes in the form of external investments into potentially game changing industries and technologies (AR, BioTech, etc). Alternatively, change could come from within the organisations, albeit a little harder and riskier,

These are a few of the strengths of large companies like Google and Facebook. Despite these strengths new opportunities and new competitors will still arise. Google is a search engine, but it has moved into email and other markets. Google had existed before Facebook, and Google had more resources than Facebook when it got started. Why didnt Google takeover social networking instead?

The OP posed the question about if Google will always be the default search engine it has acted as for the last two decades. In my opinion, this can change. With the advent of Amazons Echo and Siri, more and more searches are being conducted via these platforms. Both of these platforms use the Bing search engine. [1][2] If Bing did a better job [3], then its conceivable that more marketshare can be had by Bing. As human computer interface progresses, the act of visiting Google.com will become antiquated. This leads to opportunities for other search engines to gain adoption more or less transparently.

Facebook is a social network we access via our web browser and mobile device. If VR becomes what is promised and more widely adopted, then social networking as a category will become redefined. Facebook is at an advantage because of the Oculus acquisition, but the VR space is still so young; There are no real experts in VR.

TLDR; A series of mistakes" made by these people comprised organisations could lead to true competitors. Strengths, like talented people and diversification, could counteract any risk to competitors. New platforms like Echo, Siri, and Cortana abstracts the use of the Bing Search Engine. VR could redefine social networking which opens more opportunities.

[1] https://www.quora.com/Can-I-change-Siris-search-engine[2] https://www.reddit.com/r/amazon/comments/2lsg9n/amazon_echo_...[3] http://thenextweb.com/gadgets/2015/07/08/alexa-y-u-no-answer...

Ask HN: Will VR experiences promote empathy?
11 points by cyrusradfar  3 days ago   9 comments top 7
wturner 15 hours ago 0 replies      
I have trouble attaching the idea of "Empathy promotion" to any kind of technology. Example: "Guns promote empathy because they allow us to kill edible things and protect our families". I think people promote empathy en-mass through our "cultural" assumptions first, "technological empathy" is a secondary extension of that ... imho
adiian 1 day ago 0 replies      
My intuition would be tempted to say no. But I would look at similar breakthroughs in our history.

I think Photography and Television and arguably Internet made us more emphatic and open-minded to accept differences, especially when the root cause was ignorance. VR could follow the trend if we can be emerged in places and circumstances we can not physically be in, or if we can see the world through other person eyes.

curuinor 3 days ago 1 reply      
Social presence is your research keyword. There's a long history of research done which can be pretty much summed up with Cliff Nass's contention that people confuse humans with computers a lot, and transactional status ends up being important because of this.

I think that in practice, VR will not promote empathy for the same reason that social networks have not: because status aggrandizing products will be too popular. You already see this in horror games, where they become literally too scary for VR because the lowering of status in transaction feels too real.

Look up the Proteus effect: that will lead to some detrimental things whenever it gets implemented in the social applications that people will come up with. So there will come new Instagrams, and they will be more terrible than the old social networks.

aaron695 2 days ago 0 replies      
No it won't, why would it?

For some reason there's a meme that it will but all the reasons I've seen why VR would also apply to the internet and it doesn't seem to have.

Reality is we don't want more empathy anyway. It's a cancer that stops many good things happening.

missn 3 days ago 0 replies      
BeAnotherLab is one that tries to do that: http://www.themachinetobeanother.org

They let you experience what it's like to be another person via a custom-built video rig (i.e. you get to 'see' the world as another person).

TheGreatestEver 3 days ago 1 reply      
But why would a VR experience promote empathy? I can't find any research on that...
Ask HN: Immutable data structures for the back end?
3 points by uptownhr  2 days ago   7 comments top 7
bbcbasic 2 days ago 0 replies      
Well it is trite to say it but Haskell has many examples of servers and idiomatic haskell will almost always use immutable data. Examples are web frameworks like Yesod and web servers like Warp.

I'm working on a toy stock exchange app to learn haskell and of course it will be mostly immutable. It will use some shared global state. This will have mutable reference using mvars or transactional memory but the "objects" themselves will be immutable.

Communicating between threads makes total immutability hard (maybe impossible?) unless you have a very clever threading model.

arms 1 day ago 0 replies      
Sure they can. You can use server side languages like Clojure, Erlang, Elixir, F# and a few others I'm sure I'm missing.

There also exist libraries for some languages that introduce immutable data structures, like pysistance for Python.

_RPM 15 hours ago 0 replies      
Did you just learn about the concept of Immutable? It's a very simple concept, it seems to be the buzzword lately, especially with JavaScript libraries.
gary__ 1 day ago 0 replies      
See the event sourcing pattern for an example of immutability at the backend.



hakanderyal 2 days ago 0 replies      
You can check out Datomic[0], a database built on immutability, championed by Rick Hickey of Clojure.

[0]: http://www.datomic.com/

uptownhr 2 days ago 0 replies      
Are there any examples of this being done?
galistoca 2 days ago 0 replies      
What do you think would be the benefit?
Ask HN: Getting started with AI today?
15 points by jason_slack  4 days ago   10 comments top 5
zxcvvcxz 20 hours ago 1 reply      
I would recommend a first-principles approach, if you're really interested in the field, building a career around it, and not just jumping on something because it's "hot".

To that end, start with Convex Optimization [1]. You'll develop an incredibly versatile - but not esoteric - mathematical background. You'll link the mathematics to solving real engineering problems fairly quickly. You'll tackle the basics of machine learning as well.

After this, you'll have a pretty strong background to get into more traditional machine learning and deep learning. Regarding the former, Andrew Ng's notes are pretty solid [2], and for DL, Karpathy's Stanford course is great [3].

Self-studying all this material could take up to a year (part time, assuming you do it while having a job), but I don't know of a better way to gain the skills and get into the field. This approach balances your learning of fundamentals, engineering applications, real software, numerical computing, and the more fun "new" stuff.

Hope it works out well for someone else.

[1] - http://stanford.edu/class/ee364a/ Great video lectures available too.

[2] - http://cs229.stanford.edu/materials.html Also has great video lectures on Youtube.

[3] - http://cs231n.stanford.edu/index.html Ditto on the lecture vids.

rayalez 1 day ago 1 reply      
Recently I have bought the book "Deep Learning with Python"[1], and I can't recommend it enough. Very gentle introduction into deep learning, through creating several practical projects. If you know the basics of ML - you should get it, it's amazing.

To learn the basics of ML, you can check out the awesome tuts+ course[2].

Also I wrote an article [3] with the collection of the best free resources, I think you'll find it useful.

[1] https://machinelearningmastery.com/deep-learning-with-python...

[2] http://code.tutsplus.com/courses/machine-learning-distilled

[3] https://medium.com/@rayalez/list-of-the-best-resources-to-le...

vshan 4 days ago 1 reply      
May not be hot tech like ML, but traditional symbolic AI is still pretty useful in stuff like Natural language processing. Plus, it's a great way to learn functional programming too.

Book rec: Computation Semantics with Functional Programming. It goes through the whole gamut of formal languages, lambda calculus, propositional logic, predicate logic, logical inference engines, nl semantics etc. It uses Haskell to build concrete examples for each section, and contains a concise tutorial on the language too. Very self-contained. No prerequisites required.

kiloreux 4 days ago 2 replies      
Of course there is (even plenny):

Caffe (Deep learning framework by berkeley) / C++ mainly

Theano / Python

Tensorflow / More Python fully support, but also supports C++

NLTK Natural language processing Toolkit / Python

scikit-learn / Python

Torch / Different interfaces

CNTK / C++

Opencv / C++ Python

I haven't covered them all, but please at the bottom of this list I am maintaining there is everything you need to know to get started


DrNuke 2 days ago 0 replies      
If looking for job opportunities, in addition to tech think of a field / industry or two you like and focus on their business model for your AI applications. Also make sure you understand when AI and machine learning are actually useful instead of merely silly: not every correlation is useful. Many times, nothing meaningful comes from them, however big your data sample is. Machine learning "emergency" is not going to replace the scientific method.
Ask HN: Would you use Tor to connect to your distributed servers?
6 points by merqurio  2 days ago   7 comments top 2
tshtf 2 days ago 2 replies      
* Tor will cause IDS and firewall alerts. This could lead to traffic being blocked.

* Tor HS are not particularly resilient and have relatively high latency.

* The addresses of Tor hidden services can be determined by an attacker (Malicious HSDir operators).

* The Tor network is already over capacity, and isn't intended or ready for commercial use. Carefully considering using a free community service for a commercial product.

* If you do ultimately use Tor, consider running Tor relays or donating to the foundation.

rendx 2 days ago 1 reply      
Yes, perfectly possible. With onion services, you get static identifiers to connect to the machine, and Tor is pretty good at working its way through NAT/firewalls. Bonus: You can seal that device off, and portscanning or similar won't give away anything.
Ask HN: Best way to make quick, relatively simple HTML5 games today?
24 points by cableshaft  4 days ago   14 comments top 10
iends 4 days ago 3 replies      
Have you looked at http://phaser.io/ ? Lots of resources available for it, active IRC channel, even a few books written.
colanderman 4 days ago 0 replies      
I've always wondered, why more people don't use SVG for web games. It's easier to work with than HTML+CSS, and since you can specify simple animations in it, you can reduce the amount of work your game loop needs to do manually.
adiian 3 days ago 1 reply      
Here are my personal options for 2d games, based on my personal background(I developed Flash games):

- Construct2 is you want to create simple games without writing code. Simple to do standard games, hard if you need more control or more complex data structures. It contains exporters for different platform including mobiles(using html5 wrapper to execute html code, based on phonegap or something similar).

- GameMaker - quite similar to Construct2, a bit more powerful and it requires to write more code than Construct2, unfortunately in their own language. You can export games for different platforms(unlike Construct2 it generates and compile the code for each platform in native code) and for html. Each exporter should be brought so it makes this option the most expensive.

- CreateJS - the Adobe Html5 alternative. It recreates the class hierarchy from action3 flash, in html5 js. A tentative to recreate Flash in Html5, good enough. It has the advantage that it can export Flash graphics including vector graphics in an html library which can be used imported in your project.

- Phaser - A nice framework based/inspired/not an exact port of Flixel. It has nice features and it was written only for games so I would say generally it's better than CreateJS, in the same way Flixel was better than plain AS3. It can be combined with Pixi.js to webgl rendering.

- OpenFl - a flash inspired library written in Haxe. The advantage is that it can generate and compile the game in native code for virtually any platform that matters including HTML5. It can even import and use flash objects for graphics.

- LibGDX - write it in java, deploy it on multiple platforms, including html. It uses OpenGl for rendering, for the html export they use Google GWT to translate java code to javascript. It sounded for me as an interesting approach.

My advice is to pick one option and to go for it(the list is far away of being exhaustive). If you have java experience you can check CreateJS or OpenFl, if you want a codeless engine, Construct2 is more popular among html devs than GameMaker.

P.S. It seems Phaser can be easily used with ecma6.

tonyle 4 days ago 0 replies      
I came across this post a few years ago, reminds me of the javascript games written 15+ years ago. For a lot of use cases, This technique is simple and has good enough performance.http://buildnewgames.com/dom-sprites/

Also,take a look at http://createjs.com/.It is pretty familiar if you come from a flash background. The latest version of adobe flash/animate exports to createjs so you can keep using your old flash authoring skills for your assets.

However, If time is your major constraint, unity might not be as overkill as you might think.

kyle-rb 4 days ago 0 replies      
libGDX is a Java game engine that's relatively simple and lets you deploy to HTML5, Android, iOS, and desktop. PlayN.io is fairly similar I think, but I haven't used it.

2048 is actually somewhat of an odd case, since it was originally only an HTML5 game that was built to run in both the browsers of desktop and those of mobile devices. For this reason, the developer didn't actually port the game to Android/iOS until much later. Pretty much all the versions on the App Store/Google Play Store were 3rd party clones of the original, since it was relatively simple and open source.

tobr 4 days ago 0 replies      
PuzzleScript[1] sounds like it might work for what you want to do, at least for quick prototypes. It's a brilliant little online IDE for a puzzle game DSL.

It might seem like a toy, but there's a community of people who create genuinely good games in it.[2]

[1] http://www.puzzlescript.net/editor.html

[2] http://puzzlescriptgallery.tumblr.com

nblumoe 4 days ago 0 replies      
I really like https://www.scirra.com/construct2 for having fun and fast prototype iterations. Just be aware, that it is UI and click heavy, but yet powerful and flexible. I think it will be hard to manage large code bases in Construct, but that is something I have not yet gotten into with my simple hobby projects.
jason_slack 4 days ago 0 replies      
Take a look at Cocos Creator: http://cocos2d-x.org

Utilizes JavaScript and there will also be Lua and C++ support coming.

It is under active development, docs are good and there are plenty of complete game examples to learn from.

k__ 4 days ago 0 replies      
Phaser and Crafty are code oriented 2D game engines.

I think entity component system of Crafty scales a bit better than Phaser, but on the other hand Phaser has a bigger community.

slurppurple 4 days ago 0 replies      
Babylon.js is a pretty good option for 3d games
Ask HN: How to handle staging environments?
8 points by fabianlindfors  4 days ago   7 comments top 5
penguinlinux 4 days ago 1 reply      
you can use an instance that has docker on it, then setup docker compose files with wordpress, git , apache and setup a port. then on the machine setup virtualhost to point to the entry tcp port of the docker instance. then all you have to do is build the docker instances . You can mantaint all that with git and handle all of your deployments that way.
seanwilson 3 days ago 0 replies      
Why not use Heroku for this? If it's a staging environment only for demos I can't see how you'd burn through much of your monthly free hours. Heroku makes setting up staging environment very easy.
mgberlin 4 days ago 1 reply      
I would highly recommend using Elastic Beanstalk on AWS. I use the python platform most of the time, but PHP is available as well. If you're a new user, you can get a year on a t2.micro for free, and even if you have to pay that usually works out to about thirty-ish dollars a month which is probably tenable.
saluki 3 days ago 0 replies      

Even if you're not using Laravel(PHP) it works for quickly spinning up a vps on digital ocean or AWS.

You can setup multiple dev/test sites on one droplet.

Deploy repo via github bitbucket.

It's super fast and easy.

We setup live site on it's own droplet then have another staging droplet. Develop locally with valet/homestead (laravel.com), deploy to staging using forge, deploy to production using forge.

Forge has quick deploy which deploys when you push to your repo.

There is also https://envoyer.io/ for zero downtime deployment.

emilburzo 4 days ago 0 replies      
When resources are tight, I'm a big fan of having a bare metal server + lxc + ansible.

I've also recently began looking into docker, but the update image dance seems like more work to me than the above.

Ask HN: Proof that SaaS is running specific source code checkout?
6 points by twa927  2 days ago   7 comments top 7
joshdev 2 days ago 0 replies      
Based on my experience with SaaS, those that do offer Open Source software, are only open sourcing the core of their product. There is typically a whole suite of tools and add ons that expand their core offering into something that makes it more beneficial for companies to just go with the SaaS offering. Deployment and monitoring are two pieces that come to mind.
notduncansmith 9 hours ago 0 replies      
It'd be expensive to run a full SaaS, but technically you could do it on Ethereum, and the execution would be verified by the blockchain.
twa927 2 days ago 0 replies      
One possibility would be to have a third-party service that would handle the instantiation of a service from some declarative description. Say, you specify a docker container and the service would run it and would tell the given server is running as the specific docker container. (so it would depend on the authority of the service).

However, you wouldn't have a possibility to "log in" to a container or interfere with it in any deep way, because it would break the concept.

I think that the "serverless" concept already treats the running service as an immutable thing so probably adding the proof of running from a specific checkout would be easier there.

mbrock 2 days ago 0 replies      
GNU has a page about the problems of SaaSS ("Service as a Software Substitute") going into the problems you mention.


throwaway2016a 2 days ago 0 replies      
While I agree with another commenter that in all likelihood it isn't running the same software but rather the core is opened sourced and they have proprietary value added tools.

For example, many OSS SaaS products I've seen have an open source version that only supports running a single user or single company but their deployed SaaS version is multi tenant.

So if you're really concerned about SaaS products slipping in back doors or something like that that defeats the "publicly audit-able" condition (if I'm reading your concern right) you can't do anything about it except run the OSS code yourself and not use the SaaS.

alkchr 2 days ago 0 replies      
There was a similar discussion on HN. And somebody posted a link to the "CloudProxy Tao for Trustworthy Computing" [1]. I have no idea how it works though.

[1]: https://github.com/jlmucb/cloudproxy

hakanderyal 2 days ago 0 replies      
Since the hardware is under control of the provider, there isn't any practical way to really ensure anything.
Ask HN: How is software consulting different than working on an internal team?
7 points by y1y1  3 days ago   2 comments top 2
kohanz 3 days ago 0 replies      
I've worked in both of those situations, but to be completely honest, I believe the variance in experiences introduced by different company cultures, leadership, team members, etc. is so much greater than any systemic effects from the nature of the company's business (e.g. product company vs. consultancy) that it would be pointless and misleading to generalize about one over the other. You can have both product companies and consultancies that will be enjoyable places to work at and it depends much more in the culture and leadership put in place by the decision-makers than whatever is driving the bottom line.
rajanchandi 2 days ago 0 replies      
It entirely depends on yourself and the type of work you can get. If you're an extroverted type, working in consulting may be a good experience. If you're highly creative but introverted type, you may not enjoy dealing with your client as much. If you're service oriented, you'd enjoy working with a client. If you're product oriented, you may prefer working on purely software/tech side of things!
Ruby K-means implementation which can be easily adjusted to X-means
3 points by wlrm  3 days ago   discuss
Ask HN: How do we go from 1K subscribers to 10K?
9 points by daverad  3 days ago   8 comments top 3
akulbe 2 days ago 0 replies      
I'm asking because I have the same question, just on a smaller scale.

Is it more than a matter of just repeating what you did to get your first 1K customers? Because it seems like you're killing it, already, to get to 1000. I'd LOVE to be in that situation, but it's a different model of business.

It'd be interesting to hear how you got from 0 to 1000. In any case, best of luck. :)

sharemywin 3 days ago 1 reply      
Just read this yesterday thought it was might help.


cm2012 2 days ago 1 reply      
Do you have any paid acquisition channels that work, or is all growth currently through word of mouth?
Ask HN: iOS Devs: Where do you get your clients / projects?
7 points by selfthrow  4 days ago   3 comments top
webtechgal 3 days ago 1 reply      
Not exactly into iOS dev but based on my experience, it might be worth checking out the following:

1. Freelancer.com2. PeoplePerHour.com3. Guru.com4. Upwork.com

All looked upon as 'fish markets' and 'sweat shops' by many which is not entirely inaccurate, but you will frequently find decently paying jobs too. You might have to struggle initially (with bottom-of-the-barrel jobs) in order to build up your profile and get some reviews, but once you have a few under your belt, things should start getting better. YMMV

Ask HN: Need Advice with UK's Tier 1 Exceptional Talent Visa
11 points by uk-visa  4 days ago   1 comment top
afarrell 4 days ago 0 replies      
As a US citizen who finished up a UK job search a while ago, I looked at this visa a while ago and concluded:

1) It was meant for The sort of folks that earn titles like "Principal Engineer"

2) It was going to be way easier to get a Tier-2 visa sponsorship.

My advice would be to reach out to the influential people who already follow your blog, have have gone to your talks, or who use your product.

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