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An emulator for a single-instruction (NOR) CPU
41 points by wlrm  21 hours ago   21 comments top 6
adamnemecek 19 hours ago 2 replies      
keenerd 15 hours ago 4 replies      
> Two of them are special: NOR and NAND.

No, IMP does this as well. It has mostly been useful for memristor logic.

 A B IMP 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
I have a suspicion there is a more general mathematical law that says any boolean rule with a 1-of-4 split (either exactly one true or exactly one false) can be used for general computation, if you can make a NOT gate out of it. (Since AND/OR obviously is not workable.) So there should be six possible universal logic gates.

wallacoloo 14 hours ago 2 replies      
One-instruction computers intrigue me because of the possibility of making the processor out of a ridiculously low number of transistors. To that effect, I've always wanted to implement one that doesn't require a hardware adder for the instruction pointer. It seems like it should be possible. For example, each clock cycle the CPU would take the NAND of the bit pointed to by the IP and the bit adjacent to it (via flipping the LSB of the IP) and use the result to determine a new value of the IP using very simple logic (E.g. IP = IP<<1 | NAND(mem[IP], mem[IP ^ 1]) ). But surprisingly, I've never seen this done and the last time I approached it I didn't have the knowledge needed to choose an appropriate scheme and prove its usability.
userbinator 16 hours ago 0 replies      
Not exactly the same thing, but the Apollo Guidance Computer is built entirely out of 3-input NOR gates:


dorfuss 13 hours ago 0 replies      
Reminds me of a book and Coursera course called "From NAND to Tetris" by Noam Nissan and Shimon Shocken. You can learn how to build a computer from basic logic gates, the web site below provides a hardware simulator in JAVA and pre-made components.



nickpsecurity 15 hours ago 0 replies      
Neat CPU. That and adamnemecek's comment made me do a quick Google to see if there's interesting results in OISC that you all might enjoy. Found an improvement on SUBLEQ that's pretty impressive. Original first and newest below:



"Our test results demonstrate that computational power of our Subleq OISC multi-processor is comparable to that of CPU of a modern personal computer."

I didn't see that coming for OISC projects. Pleasant surprise. :)

I'm Peter Roberts, immigration attorney who does work for YC and startups. AMA
340 points by proberts  1 day ago   331 comments top 125
sesameoil 1 day ago 2 replies      
Hi Peter,

I've received my green card through my sponsor company 2 months ago. (It's a highly reputable fortune 100 company and I am building their core web product)

And I have a project that's getting traction and really want to leave the company and commit full time to it.

But everything on the web says I need to wait at least 6 months before leaving the company after I receive green card, otherwise they can kick me out for fraud when I apply for citizenship later. But some people also say this is just a myth.

So the question: Is this true and I am stuck with this company for next 4 months even though I really want to go full time on my project? Any ways to get around this? Thanks!

p.s.I know this is not a type of question that you may be interested in answering since it's a minority case, but I would really appreciate at least a one line comment on what you think (or even saying it's not something you can answer). It looks like it's not just me, at least 6 people are interested so far, we will all be grateful to hear from you!

sjtgraham 1 day ago 3 replies      
I'm a UK citizen that has been looking at EB-1A all week (because of Brexit), I'm now sure I do not want to continue living here if we in fact do withdraw from the EU. My questions:

- How many of the 10 criteria must you actually satisfy? Is it a binary decision, i.e. proving 3/10 is the same as is the same as satisfying all 10. Is a positive decision 100% guaranteed is at least 3 criteria are proved satisfactorily?

- What is the standard of proof?

- When would my obligation to complete a IRS tax return begin, i.e. is it when the consulate adds an MRIV I-551 to my passport, when I arrive in the US an immigrant and CBP endorses it, or another time. This might impact when I would apply.

- How long would the EB-1A process take, how long does it take for a permanent resident to sponsor a spouse, can these applications happen concurrently, and are both categories current?

- What are the indicative costs?

mehta 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

Thanks for taking the time out to answer questions!

I am from India and am in US on H1B with gc process underway in EB2 category. I (along with a fellow friend) have been thinking of doing something on our own but are always discouraged by the immigration process. If we were to start something on our own, what are our options? H1b where you have a majority stake seems to not be an option. Is there an alternate way to do this?

I don't seem to satisfy requirements for O1.

jameshush 1 day ago 3 replies      
Hi Peter,

I'm a Canadian citizen with a four year computer science degree. I've gotten a TN work permit twice, with two different companies over the past three years.

If I started a company with an American citizen and they opened it up, could they then hire me as a Computer System Analyst? Is there a minimum salary they'd have to pay me (e.g. could I get a TN and still only get paid $10/hour)? Is this a common way for Canadian co-founders to enter the United States or is there a better route?

godbov 1 day ago 4 replies      
I know that Australian citizens can use the E3 visa for working in the US. Do you know if Australian citizens can start companies in the US using the E3 visa? Is it something like, you work for the company you founded? What happens if the company fails, or runs out of money?

EDIT: Updated question.

ry_ry 1 day ago 2 replies      
I'm an English programmer working in the UK for a site owned by, via another company, a very large privately owned US company. I have a child and a partner I am not married to. I have no criminal record.

I'm unsettled by the brexit, and am considering a US move - if my company's parent wants to take me on how difficult is the immigration process likely to be?

auggierose 1 day ago 5 replies      
So what does extraordinary ability mean? Are we talking PhD level ability here, or Turning award level ability, or somewhere in between?
otto_ortega 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I live in Central America, I have been working as a remote worker for US-based companies for around 5 years now, the past 1.5 years working for a company on Seattle, I haven't signed any formal work-contract but my current employer is willing to help me to obtain a VISA to inmigrate to the US (I only have a tourist VISA right now).

I'm also in the way to co-found a company with my employer as partner, I will get 16% of ownership over it.

What are my best options to move to the US?

May I still apply to an H1B visa despite not having a formal work-contral? (the payments records, Skype logs and emails are the only proof I have)

knxclkases 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter, Thank you for taking the time to do this AMA.

The company that I currently work for has offered to start processing my GC, but only under an EB3. I have a masters degree in computer science from an American University, (and I have about 4 years of work experience) so I am technically eligible for an EB2 (and since I am from India, EB2 vs EB3 makes a big difference).

My question is, if I go ahead with the processing, Once I have my I-140 and priority date, would it be possible for me to switch jobs keeping the same priority date? If I move to a company with the means (and willingness) to file for a GC under EB2, would they be able to keep the same priority date?

Just trying to understand if this is something worth fighting for? Or if I should just accept the EB3 filing, get my I-140 and eventually move to a company that will re-file it under EB2?

kevindeasis 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

Thank you very much for doing this! I have two questions about Canadian citizens looking for jobs in America. Possibly, looking to immigrate to Americain the future. Also, If possible getting double/triple citizenship.

Let's pretend you are a Canadian citizen, recently graduated from computing science, that is currently living in Alberta, Canada. What is the best way to get a job in America? Should I apply for a visa as well or should they offer a visa sponsorship?

Then, let's say I get hired. What's the best way to get an American citizenship with the goal of maintaining my Canadian citizenship? I was originally born in the Philippines; would it be wise to get three citizenships (America/Canada/Philippines)?

senpost 1 day ago 1 reply      
Can a H1B visa holder start a company?What are the options for H1B visa holder to do side projects for money?

Thank you.

raz32dust 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I have heard different answers to this from different people. Can I earn income from apps on apple store/android etc. if I am on a work permit in the USA? Does it matter if the app was initially launched when I was in India (my home country) or after I moved here?


nopinsight 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter, Thank you much for doing this. I am a startup founder who plans to obtain E-2 visa and uses it for residency during the first 2 years of business. I hope to transfer to EB-1 or EB-2 with National Interest Waiver (NIW) as soon as possible.

1) What are the possibilities and timeline for applying to EB-2 while holding E-2 with majority interest in the startup? (I have a Masters in CS from a major US research university. It seems to be a challenge to qualify for EB-1 within the next 2 years, but NIW looks quite possible to me.)

A major reason for the plan is that E-2 treaty with my country limits the period of travel out and back into the US to 6 months after the visa approval. After 6 months, it appears that I will need to renew the visa every time I wish to come back to the US, which would be a major time sink.

2) Would EB-2 give its holders complete freedom to travel back to the States without issues and to stay as long as they wish?

3) Are EB-2 holders required to maintain employment with the original employer?

If you have time: I would strongly consider to become a US citizen after receiving an EB-2. What is the typical timeline and conditions to transfer from EB-2 to US citizenship?

Greatly appreciate it.

Trufa 1 day ago 2 replies      
I never had a formal university education, what are my real chances of being accepted for a work visa.

I think that I'm pretty good but and have a pretty interesting CV probably not "extraordinary".

What are the chances of me working in the USA? Does it really nullify my chances?

I have been working since I was 17 in jobs related and then very specific to programming, I'm 28 now.

I also have a uruguayan and spanish/european nationality, which would be better for an application?

FabianBeiner 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hello Robert! Thanks for doing this (again). I got two questions, but any answer is appreciated!

1st: Id love to stay in the US as a digital nomad for some months. Id have to work on my own projects and maybe on some client ones while doing this (all of them outside the US). Which kind of VISA would I need?

2nd: Are there any chances to get a work permit if you dont own a University degree? (Eg. starting my own company in the US?)

Thank you!

poorguyh1b 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter. I am on H-1B (currently going through PERM labor certification application). My wife is on TN-1. Could it be a problem at the border (exit then reenter US) because I have dual-intent and she does not?
claudiordgz 1 day ago 5 replies      
I'm a Mexican citizen living in the US working as a Computer Systems Analyst. Been here for 1 and a half year and my wife and daughter joined me a year ago. I just recently moved jobs and the UCSIS approved me a work permit and I-94 until 2019. I came here as a TN visa, and I am worried if asking for a green card would get me and my family in trouble.
rileyt 1 day ago 2 replies      
I have a TN and I would like to learn more about the legality of passive income forms like advertising, affiliates, etc. Where or who is the right place to get info on this? Thanks!
rednotebook 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hey Peter!

I'm moving with my company (large Washington-headquartered tech firm) from London to California. They're applying for an L1B specialized knowledge visa as a blanket application. What sorts of reasons are people rejected for L1s? I'm very nervous I'll be turned down as I've heard horror stories about USCIS. Does it being blanket improve my chances? What % of people are turned down? I married an American a few years ago and was intending to move to the US to be together but it didn't end up working out - I don't think the paperwork ever got sent in the end. Would something like this impact my chances? I'm probably worrying unnecessarily. I'm 26, worked at the company for just over a year and have worked for a couple of other large tech firms in London before that.


hiranyaf 12 hours ago 1 reply      
Hello Peter!

I am so happy to find you and this thread. here's my story: I am a Swiss and Sri Lankan national, female, been in the U.S. uninterrupted since 2002 on several different visas. F1-while at Wharton getting my MBA, then G4 working for the World Bank, then three different H1-Bs (2 corporate, one research think tank) and then since 2012 I have been on an E-2 for my start-up business.

So basically I have been in the U.S. for 14+ years already, paid taxes in the highest tax bracket, own two properties here, started a business and grew it to profitability in 4 years, so far provided employment to 6 part-time American workers. Additionally my start-up business is in career coaching and job search- and so I have helped over 400+ Americans land good jobs, including for positions at the State department, DoD, and the U.S. Foreign Service. My company has partnerships with universities like Georgetown and my team coaches close to a 1000 American students every year.

What are my chances of applying successfully for an Extraordinary Ability EB1 Green Card? Or EB2?

Thank you in advance!

pramttl 1 day ago 0 replies      
Do you see new OPT STEM extension (24 months) and it's requirements be something that could be met by most F-1 student entrepreneurs on OPT?

Background:The new 24 month STEM OPT Extension [1] (effective from May 10, 2016) which requires employers to fill I-983 [2] (Lengthy Training Plan) has created additional barrier for foreign students intending to start/work with startup companies on STEM OPT Extension (which earlier was for 17 months with less regulations). Being an F-1 student myself I can say that, these regulations could certainly influence more potential F-1 entrepreneurs down the "job seeking" path as opposed to "job creation/entrepreneurship" path because it is much easier for bigger companies with resources to satisfy the USCIS training plan requirements/I-983 as opposed to newly born companies.

[1] https://www.uscis.gov/working-united-states/students-and-exc...

[2] https://www.ice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Document/2...

marsha_ 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter, first of all thanks a ton for doing this.

My first question is how much time it takes to get green card through employment for someone who's not from India or China.

My second question is, does it make any difference to complete my MS before starting the process, or it doesn't change the approval chance and/or delay at all? (MS is from a middle eastern uni, not US)

--Here is a bit background about me: applied H1-B 3 times, didn't get selected. Now the company that applied for H-1B for me is preparing to apply for GC for me next month.I have a BS in CS and 3 years of experience, and almost done with a MS degree outside the US, just need to complete my thesis.

Thanks a lot again!

turnip1979 1 day ago 1 reply      
Thanks for taking the time. For Canadians or Europeans with PhDs and a sufficient track record to make EB1 feasible, is it better to work at a research institution while one gets a green card, or is it better to just plow ahead with a startup and then do the EB1? Can you discuss pros and cons? I've seen many colleagues delay their startup aspirations while they wait for immigration reasons .. I want to understand if this is being prudent or a folly. I've heard the green card that you get as a researcher is nominally approved for that job title. Are there issues people face when they eventually attempt to become naturalized?
ionwake 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

If I am a UK contractor with my own Limited company, what visa - if any, do I need to be able to do a 6-month contract in the US?

Thank you.

throwawaydui 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

Thanks for doing this! I am currently looking at a unique situation, so I'm not sure if you would know about this. All I'm asking is if you would know anything from your experience.

I'm an h1b visa holder from India and I recently got arrested and charged with a DUI. After talking to my lawyer, he looked at the evidence (videos, breathalyzer tests) and says its basically a 50% chance at a trial. So I'm looking at a plea bargain. How would this affect my immigration prospects? The DUI itself was my first one and it was a simple DUI, i.e. noone else was harmed or injured.


bing_dai 1 day ago 2 replies      
Hi Peter,

First of all, thank you very much for doing this.

My questions are about the USA Diversity Lottery (https://www.dvlottery.state.gov/), as I rarely see any discussions about it:

- Out of all the people you have seen who obtained a green card, roughly what is the percentage of them getting it through the lottery?

- Roughly how much time and money would the process cost? (I would assume it's similar to the ~2-4 years and ~$15K that a regular green card application cost?)

- Any other general comments you have about the lottery?

Thank you.

amingilani 1 day ago 1 reply      
How much does the whole process cost? As an international founder, that's my only major concern.
salina_om 7 hours ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,I was born in the states but moved back to my country. I only have my birth certificate and I have recently come to the states under a B1/B2 visa. I have applied for jobs.How does it work in my case, can I apply for a working visa? My current visiting visa is valid for 6 months.
napoleonarwhal 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

I am from the United States and recently discovered that my cofounder is an undocumented immigrant. What should I do? Are there legal consequences to this?

freak4pc 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter ! Thanks for doing this, I do have a couple of short questions.

I'm an employee of a large US Corporate and got a O1 Visa which I'm currently employed under. I understand that my spouse will be able to move here as a O-dependant, but won't be able to work which is a huge issue for us and will probably prevent us from moving out to the US unless we find a permanent solution.

I do wonder, what are my options of getting her a work permit besides her finding a job that would endorse her and going through the entire process?

From what I've read seems like the two options I have are:

- H1B so she could get a H4. I understand that last year Obama approved some H4 recipients can work, but I'm not sure what the criteria is. I know that it's only able to be filed by 1st of April, but I also understand that there is a premium fee that could be paid to rush things up. Would love your input on this from your experience.

- L1 so she could get a L2. Best solution it seems but getting a L1 is a lengthy process and needs a 1-year employment period which I might not have by the time we want to move.

Thanks for reading this, I would really appreciate your professional opinion on this !


ecesena 1 day ago 1 reply      
Thanks for this AMA!

I wonder what is the best structure for a US based company to have employees living in an EU country, such as Germany or Italy?

I mean, I assume they don't necessarily need a visa, and they can come to the US for limited time periods under the ESTA.

What is the best way to give them a salary and/or other common benefits? (health insurance shouldn't be needed, but 401.k or equivalent in their country would probably be a good perk).

throw345hn 1 day ago 0 replies      
1. I studied in a HCI (Human computer interaction) program where there were a mix of programmers and designers. I found that after graduation a lot of the designers were applying for O1B and were easily getting those whereas programmers generally stuck to H1B's even though some of the projects that were being shown as part of the application documentation were group projects. Is it harder to receive an O1A for people in sciences because their work is generally not visual in nature vs O1B which is for arts (or designers)?

2. My OPT ends this month (June 30th) and my employer filed for H1B starting Oct 1st. My university issued another I20 (called CAP GAP extension) which start July 1st. But currently I am thinking about changing jobs immediately as my current employer is suffering financially and I am not sure how long they may survive. Is it ok to do that during the CAP GAP period if my new employer is willing to sponsor H1B? I have read online where some people say its ok but others say its not.

Thanks for the AMA

vthallam 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter! Thanks for the AMA!

Can you please describe briefly about the process to establish a company here while on H1-B. From incorporation to founder's visa status. Whether there has to be a American co-founder or if it helps to have one. If funding helps in getting a visa etc.

The description about the 2 visa's for GC is clear, i just wanted to know about initiating the process.

Thanks in Advance!

anarazel 1 day ago 1 reply      
Is there any reasonable explanation for not being "allowed" to leave the US, after filing for adjustment of status? Without advance parole, that is. Especially when a different class of visa (say an O1, while applying for EB1A) would still allow reentry? That can be rather annoying both for professional and personal reasons.
tommyvoltz 1 day ago 0 replies      
Is popular github repo enough for o1 visa? it is significant achievement in programmers community)
andor436 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter, thanks for doing this!

My company currently employs a brilliant, in my opinion, Argentine scientist. We'd love to bring him to the US periodically, but he can't get a visa as he owns no property in Argentina, isn't married, etc. Short of meeting in a more neutral country do we have any options?

duglauk 1 day ago 1 reply      
I am on h1b and have a blog with pretty good traffic. Can I have a google adsense account and earn ad $$ ?
throw42 1 day ago 1 reply      
I have a O-1, how hard is it to get a EB1A. In what percentage of cases will a O-1 person get a EB1A.
aliakhtar 1 day ago 1 reply      
> the extraordinary ability and national interest waiver routes--are often very good options, and often overlooked because of a misunderstanding about the standards.

Can you please clarify that, especially about the extraordinary ability criteria / standards? Is there a yard stick that one can measure themselves against, to get a realistic assessment of what their chances are?

E.g may be an example persona of someone who qualifies? The examples that are given by the immigration website are olympic atheletes and such. That's probably someone who is way overqualified though. What's an example of a person who just barely qualifies, or who neither under nor over qualifies?

P.S can I hire you to be my attorney for my EB1?

chikathreesix 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,Thank you so much for having this. This is really helpful.I have heard that if you could get into YC, O1 would be an option because being selected by YC means you have extraordinary ability. Is that true?
alantrrs 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi, Peter! as a Mexican, could I get an E2 visa investing $50k of my own money into my startup? Or what's the lowest investment needed for an E2 visa? In order to reach that threshold, could my investment be complemented with VC or angel's money?


confiscate 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hey Peter,

My question is typical in the SF Bay Area, H1B founder:

I am an American Citizen. Opened up a startup C-corp. Company does not have a lot of press coverage yet. I have a friend who would like to join my startup as founder, but have doubts about immigration issues:

- H1B

- EB2

- originally from India

- graduated masters from a U.S. College

- currently software engineer for another big company. Has been for several years

- just starting the green card process

As a startup we don't have much revenue yet. He is willing to give up his salary (just as I did) to become a founder. I am worried about H1B's salary requirement preventing him from doing this.

What options do I have for bringing him on board to my startup as a founder? What would be the best way to do this?

gibsjose 1 day ago 2 replies      
Hey Peter, thanks for this.

Have you heard about SimpleCitizen? (https://simplecitizen.com/)

My wife and I were recently married and are currently considering this for getting her green card.

Any thoughts?

perardi 1 day ago 1 reply      
I work, remotely, for a private US software firm, and about a year from now, I'd like to move to Toronto to live with my partner. (Yay for long-distance relationships.)

Is it practical to work remotely for a US firm in Canada?

einstein 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter, I've a few questions:

1. What's the relationship between O1 sponsoring entity and you? Do you've to be employed by the sponsoring entity? Can you run your own business while on O1? Can you get paid by someone else than the sponsoring entity while on O1?

2. How to determine if I should go with O1 or EB2? My attorney says if my EB2 gets rejected then there can be issues getting any other non-immigration visa.

3. If I already have O1, then what's the process like going from O1 to Green Card? When can you go from O1 to Green Card?

4. If I already have O1, are there tricks to stay in the US and never go back to home country to renew it?


zanethomas 1 day ago 1 reply      
Also, from my friend again:

I know O1 visa is very specific for example O1 for producing or or O1 for acting. If your O1 is for producing you cannot do acting under that visa. Currently I have only enough experience only for producing. But Ideally I want to get O1 for producing and acting. My question is if you have O1 for producing, while you are at O1 you want to apply O1 for producing and acting, if I get denied is my O 1 for producing still good or it get waive? Or can I just petition to add acting in my current O1? If I petition to add acting and get denied does my O1 as a whole gets cancelled?

dvcoolster 1 day ago 0 replies      
I have a 10 year B1/B2 visa, and I want to start-up in US asap. What are my options? I don't mind not being in controlling stake, that's not an issue. Is there any mandate around, If a company raises X, or creates Y jobs, they can stay in US. Thanks for all the answers
linuxfan 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I have a green card that will expire in August 2016. I also have a valid travel permit until 2018. If I do not renew my green card in August, and leave the country, will I still be able to return using the travel permit?

throwasay30967 1 day ago 0 replies      
Thanks for this AMA!

Who is behind the "Washington Alliance of Technology Workers" and why do they keep bringing lawsuits against STEM OPT for F-1 visas?

Is there any moves on increasing the H1-B quota or modifying the H1-B altogether?

h1bquestion 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi, My questions is regarding a different aspect of immigration -- what are my rights if my company promised to sponsor an h1b visa but failed to do so (a mistake on their end). The company offered a compensation package for their error, but I'm not sure what's fair in that case. Should it be calculated on the months I've been there, or the value that could've potentially came if I got the h1b. (Ps the company's success rate with h1bs has been 100% so far)
no1youknowz 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I'm based in the UK and in talks with (UK Based) investors for a significant amount of seed money to start a company.

I want to setup a US based company as all of the business will be with the US and I want a local office.

What sort of "investment" for the US based company do I need to make, so that I can secure a visa and what type of E visa should I be trying to get.

I know higher the better is probably preferable. But where is the sweet spot? $100k, $250k, $500k?

I do not have a PHd, nor a Masters or even Degree. However I have 25 years of IT experience and I am the technical / founder of my company.


niwquestion 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

I am an international founder just starting on OPT after getting a PhD and hoping to get an EB-2 NIW. I have a couple questions:

1. Does starting a (small-at-the-beginning) bona fide technology startup is grounds for NIW? How difficult is the process in general (for a PhD in CS from a US school) and how many paper/citations on average do you see in successful cases?

2. If I succeed in my NIW case, can I later employ my brother (from the same nationality under E-2) and bring him on board as a cofounder later? Does it require substantial cash on his behalf?


danellis 1 day ago 0 replies      
If I, in the US, found a US-based company with someone from overseas, what should we do to maximize his chances of eventually moving to the US on an L visa?
noahlt 1 day ago 0 replies      
A friend of mine feels that the H1-B system is rigged, that the big companies will get as many H1-Bs as they ask for and that smaller companies essentially don't have the same degree of access to that labor pool. My impression is that he is wrong, but I'm no expert. As someone who deals with this regularly, what's your takedo you think big companies are practically guaranteed to get H1-B workers? How disadvantaged are smaller companies (esp those without access to YC resources)?
vorador 1 day ago 0 replies      
Is it possible for a person under an H-1B visa to have a money-generating side-project? I've read that it was absolutely illegal but I'd like to have an actual lawyer's opinion.


ankitml 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi peter,

I have an H1b petition approved till Aug 2017 but my visa hasnt been stamped.. can i get my petition extended even without having been travelled to US even once?

Also, if i have a valid visa but the petition gets expired. am i still eligible to work on the visa or the petition needs to be extended? can another employer get the petition extended for me?

dbancajas 1 day ago 1 reply      
Peter, Can you evaluate my specific case? I am going to send my resume and also my google scholar citation page.


- I have about 46 citations.

- Graduated last June 2015 PhD EE from a small US school.

- 5+ conference papers in top conferences in my field.

- 1 best paper award in a 250-paper conference.

- 1 best paper nomination in 200+-paper conference.

- 11+ conference/journal papers in Total.

- 3 approved US patents

Go or No-go on EB1-A?

I emailed this law firm for EB1: http://www.curranberger.com/ and they said I won't qualify.

What's your opinion?

ashkan3 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter, I'm a software engineer and working under F1-OPT status. I didn't get H1-B in the lottery this year. But I can maintain work authorization by extending my OPT for 2 years from now(STEM). My company told me they would apply for my green card after a year from my employment. Do I need to have a H1-B so that they can start the process for my gc? Or can they start the process while i'm on OPT?


web007 1 day ago 0 replies      
I have several sponsored (H1B?) friends / co-workers who I would want as employees in my future startup. How expensive / difficult is it to take on sponsorship?
mahoneyturnbull 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hello Peter,Thank you so much for offering this opportunity - this is really fantastic reading everyones Q+A's!

1.Re H3 'traineeship' visa. Is that a recommended route, in lieu of the o1a for business? Would an accelerator be able to satisfy this from your experience (i.e. 500 Startups) ?

2. Re H1B: Is it true that a more strategic month to submit it is around October? I am hearing conflicting opinions on the matter of timing.

tostitos1979 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi .. I am curious about how the final-part of the green card process works for a married couple living in different countries: say a dependent spouse is outside the country while the sponsoring spouse (say someone who applied via EB-1 or Eb-2) is inside the US. Is it possible for one (the dependent) to use consular processing and the other to do a change of status while inside the country? Thanks so much!
jensvdh 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

What are the odds of the H1-B lottery system changing under a Clinton/Trump presidency. What kind of changes can we expect from either of them?

pbowyer 1 day ago 0 replies      
When you are self-employed and run a successful company, is there a way to immigrate on that basis? Or do you have to find another company to work for, who will sponsor your visa application.

UK citizen, looking for a way out after yesterday's EU vote.

canIleaveyet 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

Thanks again for taking the time to answer questions. I am currently on OPT and was lucky enough to receive a H1B in this year's lottery a month or so ago. It is scheduled as a change of status happening on Oct 1st. Can I leave my current company if I have another offer and transfer the H1B to that company before Oct 1st? I have heard conflicting stories. Thanks!

threwawayx 1 day ago 1 reply      
I am a high school dropout in India. How can I make it to the US with an H1B work visa (or some other country in EU) ?

I've had (technical) job offers from US, Germany, Denmark, Japan, etc. but all of them have had issues with this.

kalemayank 1 day ago 1 reply      
I'm going to graduate with a B.S next year and already have a startup. We're raising a significant round late this year and i have a cofounder who is US citizen. Is it possible for me to have a majority stake in this company, work on it under OPT and file for an H1B or does someone need to have the ability to fire me?
vchauras1 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I have two simple questions:

I am on H1-b and I have my I-140 approved (eb-2).

- I want to switch my job and before taking up a new job in USA I want a break. Is it possible to take break of 2,3 months w/o being un-employed? If not, is there a way to achieve this?

- Once I move to a new firm, what process I can follow so that my GC application continue in normal pace?

rinormand 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter, really appreciate your initiative. Is there any kind of conflict if I apply to O1 and L1 at same time, assuming I have all the requisites for both. In your opinion the option for Premium Processing Service decrease the chances to be approved? Best regards, RN
dkraft 1 day ago 1 reply      
If I am a Colombian Citizen with a multivisit visa, and I don't have the actual visa because it is attached to an expired visa which is forgotten in the U.S. - What are the chances of re-entering USA? Is the visa information in the computer or is it useless without the physical stamp?
oneloop 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter, thanks for your time.

I'm European and I live in London and run a small advertising business (business is just me). I have a PhD in STEM. I can code.

Given this, what would you advise is the best route if I want to work and live in the USA? Would getting a job at an American company be enough?

Thank you

DelaneyM 1 day ago 0 replies      
What guidance would you give to a Canadian applying to YC who doesn't plan to stay in SF after demo day? Is it possible to work in SF for the duration of the program employed by the startup, or is it best framed as a holiday? Can one pay oneself, or pay for expenses, in that time?
galaxor 1 day ago 0 replies      
Dear Mr. Robers,I am a Spanish National, I have a small US Cloud startup company, we pay around 12K a month in services in the US, have invested around 500K in about 5 Years in Hardware are other items. Whats the best way for me to go about a biz / investor or work visa ?
togepiiod 1 day ago 0 replies      
Any thoughts or experience with the EB5 route, and founding a startup on arrival? (assuming you have the required 500k or 1m, and you are investing in something unrelated to the startup).

Is it a good choice for canadians?

What is the best way to find a qualifying and legitimate investment?

ryanlm 1 day ago 0 replies      
When is the best time to incorporate and do a binding equity split for a new venture? I have a co founder and we've begun to talk about a 50 50 equity split as an S corporation. Before work is done, is it best to have a real entity formed?
jerrickhoang 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

Thanks for taking questions. I'm currently on F1 OPT and just lost the H1B lottery. Was wondering if it's legal for me to apply directly for a GC instead. If yes, are there potential risks during the process and in the future. Thanks

matheweis 1 day ago 0 replies      
Is it even possible for someone to immigrate like the Ellis island days? It sounds like it is a complete stonewall if you don't have some exceptional skill and a lot of money ... how could a "normal" person immigrate now?
relaunched 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

I want someone to join as a co-founder, to currently work nights and weekends. However, currently, he's under H1B, working for a US company, in the US. What, if any, are the risks to both the startup venture and the individual?

Aldo_MX 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

What options does a person without a bachelor's degree (or similar) have to immigrate?

LukaAl 1 day ago 1 reply      
How does O1 and EB1 visa relate? Being on an O1 Visa make the EB1 visa process any easier? E.g: the qualification for the outstanding need to be reassessed (basically redo everything) or they just accept their previous decision?


vishnu291093 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hey Robert, My question is what all are the different ways for a student under F-1 visa to be co-founder for a start up and will I be able to do it as an OPT and apply for a H-1B visa at the same time.Thank you
haseeb1431 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hey, I have done BS CS and six years of industry experience outside of US. Can you refer some existing documents/link that can help me understanding and starting this whole process. Thanks for your time.
Naritai 1 day ago 0 replies      
I'm hiring a Canadian SW developer (w/ a Canadian CS degree) on a 6-month contract (currently has no right to work in US). Can she generally qualify for a TN visa for contract work?
vishnu291093 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hey Robert, My question is what all are the different ways for a student under F-1 visa to be co-founder for a start up and will I be able to do it as an OPT and apply for a H-1B visa at the same time.
hauget 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi there. Thanks for doing this Q&A! Is it possible you could recommend a good immigration lawyer in Germany? Cheers.
cynusx 20 hours ago 0 replies      
How long does it take to receive an O-1 visa and dependent O-3 visas?
JamesHo 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,I am a L1B Visa holder, at present. My company is preparing to apply for my GreenCard. I being on L1B visa, would I be eligible to change my employer, once I get I-140 Status?
poorguyh1b 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter. I am on H-1B. What are the legal source of revenues other than the salary I receive from my employer (H-1B sponsor)? Is it ok to have capital gains, dividends, interests?
eigensheep 1 day ago 1 reply      
I have been a green-card holder for 9 years and coming up on my expiration date in exactly 10 months. Will I face any trouble if I want to get the ball rolling on becoming a US Citizen?
clamprecht 1 day ago 0 replies      
Here's Peter's previous AMA, for reference:


stephentbiz 1 day ago 0 replies      
What expectations can a startup founder have when preparing to make an offer to an international developer?

What steps do we need to take to get them here :)

abeiz 1 day ago 0 replies      

If a Canadian is currently in the U.S on a TN visa, is it possible to get a green card? Or does one have to switch to a different visa first, as in a H1B?

goCanada2 1 day ago 2 replies      
As a Canadian citizen, working as a software developer for the past decade. I did not finish my degree in CS. Am I eligible to work in USA? What Visa would I need?
kumarski 1 day ago 0 replies      
Do any of the following qualify as extraordinary abilities?

* Winning Academic Competitions* Breaking World Records* Building Very Large Digital Things

rafikicoln 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

Thank you so much for taking the time. My question is: As a recent grad from an American U, can OPT and OPT STEM extension be used to start a new company?

jlos 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

As a Canadian with a bachelor of arts degree (I.e. non-CS degree), what kind of industry experience (if any) would be necessary to qualify for a TN-1 or H-1B?


dhiren34 1 day ago 0 replies      
I read recently that the Opt period is being extended. If I was on opt for undergrad, am I still eligible if I decide to go to grad school?
brexit123 1 day ago 1 reply      

What are the visa options for an Indian citizen ( no U.S Visa ) who has registered a Delaware LLC to get into U.S for few months and doing businesses .


brexit 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi! Thank you so much for doing this. My questions:

- Is it allowed for an F-1 visa student to start a company?

- If yes, can that company make money? Under what conditions?

Thank you!

ikestojanovik 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

Last September (2015) I received my Green Card thought the PERM process. If I was to marry someone today, could they apply for Green Card?


wlrm 1 day ago 0 replies      
Can you please give piece of advice how to prepare response for RFE in case of L1 visa? Some tricks or typical mistakes.
zanethomas 1 day ago 1 reply      
Asking for a friend:

Hi Peter, I was wondering, if I have an O visa, and I applied for EB-1 but get rejected, do I lose my O visa?

ex3ndr 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter!

Can small startup after are one year of operations immigrate to US (via L1)? What is required from a company to do so?

djebril 20 hours ago 0 replies      
What best advice would you give to an early-stage French data visualization startup willing to candidate for W17?
maratal 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter!

I've got a github repository with couple of thousands stars, can this help me to obtain O-1?

master_yoda_1 1 day ago 0 replies      
I am on H1b how much time i have for job search if I quit my current job right now?
codeproject 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peters:

I got my green cards 10 years ago. I have been working on my startup project for the past 3 years. I didn't make any money and didn't pay taxes. Now I want to apply for american citizenship. in the naturalization form, there is a section for past working places and tax paying history. What am I supposed to do with it?

mceoin 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter,

The 0-1 visa has many advantages for entrepreneurs. How would you advise positioning oneself to obtain one?

ogandda 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peter

What would you recommend for a student who is on an F1/OPT STEM extension who wishes to found a startup ?


coralreef 1 day ago 0 replies      
What was the most difficult case you have ever faced in trying to acquire a visa for a founder?
santi87 1 day ago 0 replies      
How likely am I to have my application denied after an RFE? General numbers
rootein 1 day ago 0 replies      
Can journalists/ editors qualify under the EB-1 visa?
shpx 1 day ago 1 reply      
How much harder is getting an extraordinary ability visa without a degree?
c0g 1 day ago 0 replies      
Are there any firms your recomend for someone in the london area?
LoSboccacc 1 day ago 1 reply      
would a couple patents and a successful startup experience as CTO, (but not founder) qualify for an O1?
cm2187 1 day ago 0 replies      
You should do the same UK focused. There will be like a million people who will apply for citizenship or need a visa this year!
duglauk 1 day ago 1 reply      
on H1b visa can I accept prize money (say about $2k) if I win a online coding Hackathon ?
Disruptive_Dave 1 day ago 1 reply      
yo, NOBODY gets more free work requests than lawyers.
bmaddigan 21 hours ago 1 reply      
How do I contact directly?

please advise...

bmaddigan@yahoo .com

capote 1 day ago 0 replies      
I'm a US citizen and want to move to Australia for good. How can I find someone like you in Australia to get advice from on how to proceed? (I'd just be looking for a normal software/managerial job kind of like the one I have now)
tn13 1 day ago 1 reply      
Hi Peter,

What is the approximate time that it takes for an H4 spouse to get EAD after H1B's EB1 GC process is kicked off ?


max_ 1 day ago 1 reply      
Thanx a lot!!:

How hard is it for Africans who have never stepped in the US to relocated to san Francisco as Founders/Engineers for startups?

jamisteven 1 day ago 3 replies      
Hey Robert - My Question: What do you think would happen to tech in America if H1b's were done away with and all foreign workers had to leave?
george20 1 day ago 1 reply      
I don't know anything about this topic, but I do know that this is probably not an appropriate response on HN.
saintwind 1 day ago 0 replies      
A family member of mine works for DHS as a paralegal, more or less, and their department deals with illegal immigration into the US. They often tell tales of how illegal immigrants will commit heinous acts (rape, murder) or somewhat more pedestrian crimes (heroin possession, for instance).

Anyways, the most striking part about this is that it seems a lot of the judges who handle these cases simply don't care. Because these people are often deported and then come back a week later, not a lot seems to be done. Some of the criminals won't be charged, and it seems a lot of people on the in the system will just turn a blind eye. I'm not sure if it's apathy, or if the system is so inundated that they're just unable to keep up, but have you experienced anything like this?

codeproject 1 day ago 0 replies      
Hi Peters:

Thank you for taking time doing this public service. I really appreciate.

I got my green cards 10 years ago. I have been working on my startup project for the past 3 years. I didn't make any money and didn't pay taxes. Now I want to be american citizen. in the naturalization form, there is a section for past working places and tax paying history. What am I supposed to do with it?

Ask HN: Immutable data structures for the back end?
2 points by uptownhr  5 hours ago   4 comments top 4
bbcbasic 1 hour ago 0 replies      
Well it is trite to say it but Haskell has many examples of servers and idiomatic haskell will almost always use immutable data. Examples are web frameworks like Yesod and web servers like Warp.

I'm working on a toy stock exchange app to learn haskell and of course it will be mostly immutable. It will use some shared global state. This will have mutable reference using mvars or transactional memory but the "objects" themselves will be immutable.

Communicating between threads makes total immutability hard (maybe impossible?) unless you have a very clever threading model.

hakanderyal 4 hours ago 0 replies      
You can check out Datomic[0], a database built on immutability, championed by Rick Hickey of Clojure.

[0]: http://www.datomic.com/

galistoca 4 hours ago 0 replies      
What do you think would be the benefit?
uptownhr 5 hours ago 0 replies      
Are there any examples of this being done?
Ask HN: What is your go-to example for a good REST API?
377 points by goostavos  1 day ago   172 comments top 59
sc00ty 1 day ago 9 replies      
Stripe. Their docs are amazing too, I always find it a pleasure integrating their API.


taf2 1 day ago 1 reply      
Twilio - they have a great API.

And in 2008/9 their API was always given as an example for REST APIs done right and it's still true today


rdegges 1 day ago 2 replies      
Stormpath. https://docs.stormpath.com/rest/product-guide/latest/referen...

They do an excellent job of providing a clear and robust API. I work there (but not on the engineering team), and still genuinely love the API itself.

shireboy 1 day ago 2 replies      
whoisjuan 1 day ago 2 replies      
Plaid API! So well done and documented IMHO:https://plaid.com/docs/api/
davidgh 1 day ago 2 replies      
The key to a great API? Have the developer / designer of the API write the first set of client applications before the API is published externally. I have integrated with many dozens of APIs over the years and it is immediately obvious (and unfortunately too common) when the designer of the API has never been in the seat of the client developer.

Sorry for not pointing to specific examples, but things I really love to see in an API:

- Fully qualified URLs in all links (makes navigating and discovery in Postman a breeze).

- Ability to expand resources represented by links (even deeply nested resources) so I can get exactly what I need in a single request.

- The ability to specify what parts of the response resource to include / exclude, allowing me to slim the response to exactly what I need. More important in clients running on mobile devices where slender responses make a noticeable performance difference.

- The exact same URLs (including hostnames) for the test and production API, the difference between the environments being determined by the credentials used in the request. This greatly simplifies code in the client test and production environments.

- Security schemes that allow me to write serverless client applications (OAuth 2 implicit grant). This certainly requires more work by the API developer, but makes it possible to crank out all sorts of useful tools quickly, and massively reduces client IT overhead. This may not be appropriate for all APIs, but could be used a lot more often than it is.

- Along with the above, support for CORS so we don't have to mess around with JSONP and other hacks in the browser.

- If you make me eat your timezone, please please make it UTC. But spend a little extra effort and allow me to pass a timezone in, either as an account settings and/or request parameter (and a simple offset isn't good enough - support actual timezones so daylight saving is handled). It can be incredibly hard to analyze data in responses when you're constantly having to translate the time to your own to give proper context. Timezone support isn't fun but libraries make it pretty easy. This is more important in APIs that provide lots of transactional data.

- Let me attach meta data to resources - it doesn't even have to be a lot. Sometimes allowing me to slip in a handful of bytes removes the need for an entire database on my side.

- Be painfully explicit in error responses. State the obvious, especially in errors that are likely to occur at the beginning of integration such as issues with authentication, content types, payload structure, etc.

mcphilip 1 day ago 2 replies      
Google Drive's REST API documentation is a good place to start:


kaendfinger 1 day ago 0 replies      
bryanlarsen 1 day ago 3 replies      
Related: anybody have some good examples of a good asynchronous API? This claims to be the standard, but it has confused many of our customers. http://restcookbook.com/Resources/asynchroneous-operations/

To summarize: send a 202 for the initial request, redirecting to a job URL. The client polls on the job URL, which returns 200 with progress information until it's done, when it returns a 303 redirecting to the final output.

One particular problem spot is that many http libraries automatically follow the 303 redirect, and some even follow the 202 redirect.

I definitely think we would have been better off just putting status and final location information as JSON attributes in the body rather than putting it in HTTP response codes and Location headers. Non-standard, but much less confusing for our customers.

bjourne 1 day ago 1 reply      
I've been using flask-restless to good effect. Then you don't build your own api at all, you just generate it based on your database model. You get urls like /persons/23/edit, /persons/77/delete and so on by free. There is also Django restless which is pretty good too.


huherto 1 day ago 6 replies      
Follow up. Anyone care to recommend a good book or reference on good design of REST APIs?
seanplusplus 1 day ago 1 reply      
The Slack API is a thing of beauty


AhtiK 1 day ago 0 replies      
PostgREST is a standalone web server that turns your postgresql database directly into a RESTful API.

The REST API is designed intuitively, just as one would expect.

I've been using it a lot for prototyping and internal applications. Now with the help of native row level security from postgres, it would become also a good choice for production. Or just wrap it behind your gateway.


supergeek133 1 day ago 1 reply      
Twilio does a pretty good job as well.
Cieplak 1 day ago 2 replies      
REST implies HATEOS. If you can't use an API response to navigate to other resources of the API, I wouldn't consider that API RESTful.

Also, verbs are not RESTful. Verbs imply an RPC interface.

RPC (verb):

 POST https://<payments-api>/card_authorizations/<id>/capture 
REST (noun):

 POST https://<payments-api>/card_authorizations/<id>/charges

Pelerin 1 day ago 0 replies      
georgewfraser 1 day ago 1 reply      
OData! So underused. http://www.odata.org/
wozer 1 day ago 1 reply      
Related question: Does a REST API make sense for an internal interface? Or is the overhead prohibitive compared to a more specialized interface?

(By internal interface I mean: an interface that is used only by the team that created it)

icco 1 day ago 0 replies      
Flickr still has one of my favorite APIs: https://www.flickr.com/services/api/
cnnrjcbsn 1 day ago 0 replies      
loadfocus 1 day ago 0 replies      
https://dev.twitter.com/rest/public Twitter's APIs are quite useful in terms of indentifying the REST patterns: stateless, resources names etc
spencera 1 day ago 0 replies      
I also find GitHub to be a great example for API design inspiration
milansm 1 day ago 0 replies      
http://api.zalando.com is quite self explanatory.
hoodoof 1 day ago 0 replies      
Question: to what extent does it really matter that an API closely meet the REST best practices?
niftich 1 day ago 0 replies      
The Sun Cloud API [1] was specifically designed to adhere to REST as close as possible, including HATEOAS. Here's some background from Tim Bray [2], who worked on this API when he was at Sun [3].

[1] https://kenai.com/projects/suncloudapis/pages/Home

[2] https://www.tbray.org/ongoing/When/200x/2009/03/16/Sun-Cloud

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Bray

w8wut 1 day ago 1 reply      

Good error handling, easy to get started, and they provide Postman collections for each API

Yhippa 1 day ago 0 replies      
Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority API: https://developer.wmata.com/docs/services
foolinaround 1 day ago 2 replies      
Follow up question:

is there a good example of an OPEN SOURCE REST API?

I would like to see how the versioning is achieved, how the versions are incremented, etc?

Bonus points if it is in the Java ecosystem.

rcpt 1 day ago 0 replies      
Not exactly an api but nice to see some common patterns https://getkong.org/
jc4p 1 day ago 0 replies      
Are we just talking about API documentation? Stripe's the obvious go-to for that, but for big business stuff I was pleasantly surprised with HubSpot's API and documentation. Their own UI uses the API, which means debugging a lot easier I think: http://developers.hubspot.com/docs/overview
alexmingoia 1 day ago 4 replies      
Xero. The docs are accurate and complete. The API is consistent. The API works as documented. The API is capable of everything the webapp does.


heironimus 1 day ago 0 replies      
Not a comment on the API itself, but I like how Stackoverflow/Stackexchange has interactive documentation, allowing you to fill in prompts and have it create the request for you and show the live results.


programmarchy 1 day ago 0 replies      
zettajs [1] is a great example of a REST API that meets the HATEOS requirement.

[1] http://www.zettajs.org. "An API-first, open source software platform for the Internet of Things."

tvvocold 1 day ago 0 replies      
Check this if you know Chinese: https://open.coding.net
abakker 1 day ago 0 replies      
SurveyMonkey has a very good setup - pretty much anything you can do with their web app, you can also do via the API. https://developer.surveymonkey.com
nwatson 1 day ago 1 reply      
shravvmehtaa 1 day ago 1 reply      

I'm an engineer at Lob. We'd love any feedback! support@lob.com.

junto 1 day ago 0 replies      
I was quite impressed by the Rackspace API:


kevindeasis 1 day ago 0 replies      
I'd like to ask a complementary question!

What resources (books/blogs) are you guys/gals looking at that talks about best practices for creating/implementing great REST API endpoints?

elviejo 1 day ago 0 replies      
I always found Flickrs api to be easy to use, and well documented
BinaryMachine 1 day ago 0 replies      
ranyefet 1 day ago 2 replies      
JSON API spec is really good http://jsonapi.org
Shicholas 1 day ago 0 replies      
Jsonapi.org I feel this embodies every trope of building web apps (well at least ones that use HTTP 1.1)
LeicaLatte 1 day ago 0 replies      
if you are looking for data aggregated around time wakatime has a good take - https://wakatime.com/developers
einrealist 1 day ago 1 reply      
Roy Fieldings dissertation.

If a client starts to construct URIs, then there is a flaw.

thejerz 1 day ago 1 reply      
The JIRA API is pretty good.
hoodoof 1 day ago 0 replies      
Sometimes needs a few refreshes to load for some reason but this is an interesting one to look at:


wraith69 1 day ago 0 replies      
I use the FDA's 18f API and the Jsend standard.
perseusprime11 16 hours ago 0 replies      
Based on the comments, this thread can also serve as your go-to example for the worst REST API...
digitalpacman 1 day ago 0 replies      
kwikiel 1 day ago 1 reply      
Anything scaffolded by rails.
coroutines 1 day ago 0 replies      
I'm actually using the responses here as a hunting ground for companies I'd like to work for.

Carry on...

cheez 1 day ago 0 replies      
Atlassian has a great process around developing their REST APIs. It was a bit random in earlier iterations but that team has come into its own.
emorse 1 day ago 0 replies      
I like tumblr's api
aioprisan 1 day ago 0 replies      
Trello and Stripe.
jgalt212 1 day ago 0 replies      
The Bloomberg OpenFIGI API is very clean.


j45 1 day ago 0 replies      
I like Stripe, but the design of an API is not always cookie cutter.

A lot has been written on API design that makes for interesting reading.

thesimpsons1022 1 day ago 0 replies      
i can tell you a bad one: Yammer
Ask HN: Next european hub Berlin?
24 points by DrNuke  1 day ago   33 comments top 7
drinchev 1 day ago 2 replies      
I've been living in Berlin since 3 years ( doing freelance web-development & my own "entrepreneurship" adventures ).

IMHO Berlin might sound cool as a startup hub, but there is a huge lack of talent. Companies are struggling to find a decent dev/design team, probably because the payment is way too low than average. It's true that Berlin is cheaper than London ( and overall Germany ), but definitely is not so cheap to attract good IT people to join your journey with those numbers.

On top of that, giving stock-options here is a bit hard ( legally ), so companies are struggling to offer some "virtual shares" of an employee pool as a compensation, which will never make you as rich as if you are one of the first employees of a unicorn.

Everything else from offices, meet ups, parties, nice food, international city is here and I think is much better than overcrowded and expensive London ( That's why I'm still here :) ).

greenspot 1 day ago 1 reply      
London. Not Berlin.

Berlin is affordable but that's it. You won't find the best people, the best teams and a good legal framework.

The UK has a better legal system. The UK Ltd. is way superior to the German Ltd. and soon they will move away from the EU inherited laws which are too much market regulating. Especially consumer protection and labour law are just a big bummer for many and for startups in particular.

Besides, just check total fundings, exits, average fundings sizes, etc. then you see the difference. Berlin based startups got much moeny the recent years but slowly people question again the ecosystem since exits are missing. Ok the city doesn't have the startup history like a Valley or London but still. Clear successes are missing. The only huge thing was Zalando's IPO.

znpy 20 hours ago 1 reply      
Dublin ?

It's right there, many big companies already have their offices there, English is the official spoken language, it is basically a far as uk to reach from the point of view of any European citizen, and it is cheaper (I guess).

Taxation is lower BUT actually enforced: there is no such thing as City of London corporation, isle of man or crap like that.

I guess it is less "developed" than London, but becoming the next European tech hub might be a great drive for development.

marvel_boy 1 day ago 2 replies      
London is and will be the start-up hub. Barcelona is also is a good place to start a business, but London has a lot a talent form around the world. No brexit can change that.
kator 1 day ago 1 reply      
IMHO It's too soon to tell. If several other states do the same the EU will become a disjointed mess. Some polls say as many as 43% of Germans feel more power should come home. If other member states show intention to leave it could ignite a surge of support for Germany to do the same. Then Berlin would just be another really nice place to visit but, isolated in German laws and the same chaos the UK is about to experience.

The real challenge is we live in very fragile times and the EU is like a big Jenga game, as parts start to slip away the entire thing could easily topple and drive Europe back into a chaotic state not seen in many people's lifetimes.

niftich 16 hours ago 0 replies      
European hub? Hub of what? There's no Silicon Valley in the EU, so both talent and industry is decentralized. Brexit won't change this.

London will remain an important node, but without additional incentives (ie. subsidies) no single place will take over the roles that it fulfills now inside the EU's talent market.

LuisFerreira 23 hours ago 0 replies      
Lisbon will be the place;),nice people, lots of talented people,english is common language,food .


Ask HN: Would you use Tor to connect to your distributed servers?
4 points by merqurio  20 hours ago   7 comments top 2
tshtf 19 hours ago 2 replies      
* Tor will cause IDS and firewall alerts. This could lead to traffic being blocked.

* Tor HS are not particularly resilient and have relatively high latency.

* The addresses of Tor hidden services can be determined by an attacker (Malicious HSDir operators).

* The Tor network is already over capacity, and isn't intended or ready for commercial use. Carefully considering using a free community service for a commercial product.

* If you do ultimately use Tor, consider running Tor relays or donating to the foundation.

rendx 19 hours ago 1 reply      
Yes, perfectly possible. With onion services, you get static identifiers to connect to the machine, and Tor is pretty good at working its way through NAT/firewalls. Bonus: You can seal that device off, and portscanning or similar won't give away anything.
Ask HN: Proof that SaaS is running specific source code checkout?
5 points by twa927  23 hours ago   6 comments top 6
alkchr 4 hours ago 0 replies      
There was a similar discussion on HN. And somebody posted a link to the "CloudProxy Tao for Trustworthy Computing" [1]. I have no idea how it works though.

[1]: https://github.com/jlmucb/cloudproxy

joshdev 22 hours ago 0 replies      
Based on my experience with SaaS, those that do offer Open Source software, are only open sourcing the core of their product. There is typically a whole suite of tools and add ons that expand their core offering into something that makes it more beneficial for companies to just go with the SaaS offering. Deployment and monitoring are two pieces that come to mind.
twa927 23 hours ago 0 replies      
One possibility would be to have a third-party service that would handle the instantiation of a service from some declarative description. Say, you specify a docker container and the service would run it and would tell the given server is running as the specific docker container. (so it would depend on the authority of the service).

However, you wouldn't have a possibility to "log in" to a container or interfere with it in any deep way, because it would break the concept.

I think that the "serverless" concept already treats the running service as an immutable thing so probably adding the proof of running from a specific checkout would be easier there.

throwaway2016a 17 hours ago 0 replies      
While I agree with another commenter that in all likelihood it isn't running the same software but rather the core is opened sourced and they have proprietary value added tools.

For example, many OSS SaaS products I've seen have an open source version that only supports running a single user or single company but their deployed SaaS version is multi tenant.

So if you're really concerned about SaaS products slipping in back doors or something like that that defeats the "publicly audit-able" condition (if I'm reading your concern right) you can't do anything about it except run the OSS code yourself and not use the SaaS.

mbrock 21 hours ago 0 replies      
GNU has a page about the problems of SaaSS ("Service as a Software Substitute") going into the problems you mention.


hakanderyal 20 hours ago 0 replies      
Since the hardware is under control of the provider, there isn't any practical way to really ensure anything.
Ask HN: Will VR experiences promote empathy?
8 points by cyrusradfar  1 day ago   6 comments top 4
curuinor 1 day ago 1 reply      
Social presence is your research keyword. There's a long history of research done which can be pretty much summed up with Cliff Nass's contention that people confuse humans with computers a lot, and transactional status ends up being important because of this.

I think that in practice, VR will not promote empathy for the same reason that social networks have not: because status aggrandizing products will be too popular. You already see this in horror games, where they become literally too scary for VR because the lowering of status in transaction feels too real.

Look up the Proteus effect: that will lead to some detrimental things whenever it gets implemented in the social applications that people will come up with. So there will come new Instagrams, and they will be more terrible than the old social networks.

aaron695 22 hours ago 0 replies      
No it won't, why would it?

For some reason there's a meme that it will but all the reasons I've seen why VR would also apply to the internet and it doesn't seem to have.

Reality is we don't want more empathy anyway. It's a cancer that stops many good things happening.

missn 1 day ago 0 replies      
BeAnotherLab is one that tries to do that: http://www.themachinetobeanother.org

They let you experience what it's like to be another person via a custom-built video rig (i.e. you get to 'see' the world as another person).

TheGreatestEver 1 day ago 1 reply      
But why would a VR experience promote empathy? I can't find any research on that...
Can Google or Facebook ever have a true competitor?
24 points by rms_returns  2 days ago   32 comments top 13
atsaloli 27 minutes ago 0 replies      
Every empire has its rise and fall. "To every thing there is a season ... A time to be born, and a time to die"
CM30 2 days ago 1 reply      
Yes they could. It's always possible that another company could somehow do search or social networking better than Google and Facebook, find a really clever way of marketing their services and catch on before the former has any chance to catch up.

It'd help if either got much worse at their core business (since that tends to be what dooms a lot of companies nowadays), but even a strong Google could have a competitor that simply offers people a much better and more user friendly service.

But more likely is that they don't die to direct competitors. They die because they become irrelevant. Their 'true' competitor isn't another social network or search engine, it's something that completely replaces the need to have a social network or search engine.

For example, if a company came along and figured out a way to give people results based on what they were thinking about without any direct input required, that could make Google's typical search box and results page and ads completely useless. They'd be like a horse salesman after cars were invented. Same with Facebook.

niftich 2 days ago 0 replies      
What counts as a 'true competitor'? You seem to be asking if there's a chance that someone will upend Google at search, and Facebook at social networking.

But that's not how these companies pay the bills. They built massive ecosystems around their original businesses, and they use that ecosystem to mine data and serve ads. With this money, they've amassed social and infrastructure capital, so they can out-build competitors (Google Drive, Docs), branch out into other product lines (Google Cloud Services), or simply buy them out (Instagram, WhatsApp).

To compete against them, you need differentiation and feature that appeal to a passionate audience. Snapchat, for example, attracts people who've seen or heard how damaging it can be to publically post on Facebook. DuckDuckGo appeals to people who don't want trails of their web searches making it into ads they see on websites. Dropbox works for people because they put out a solid product and aren't trying to force you to be part of a large, monolithic ecosystem.

But it's an uphill battle. Facebook's preferred strategy is to buy out services before they become dangerous (they tried to buy Snapchat back when it was still known mostly for sexting), and Google's is to outbuild others. They form a very effective duopoly in a way.

hyperpallium 2 days ago 1 reply      
FB has a "network effect" the value of the network increases with the square of the participants (i.e. the number of connections you can have). Similar effects occur with human languages, telephones, and the internet. It's a kind of natural monopoly, because once one gets big enough, no alternative can catch up. That's why we have the internet, and not internets.

Google is different, because it's easy to switch search engines. One competitive advantage they have is "google suggest" - this takes massive capital investment in server farms to be fast enough, which is difficult for smaller competitors to match.

NOTE: in Google's opinion, FB was a very serious threat (hence google+), because more information about users means better targetted ads. So they don't think they're unassailable.

Lordarminius 2 days ago 2 replies      
> Can Google or Facebook ever have a true competitor?Unlikely. But never say never.Both companies, have built dominant market positions and have advantages that competitors will likely be unable to overcome.Peter Thiel even argues Google is a monopoly.

> but is it going to be the same always?No. If it were, then the future is already fixed, knowable and stagnant.Unlikely :(

> If not, then what will cause us to move to a different search engine? What can XYZ make to cause people to leave FB and come to its network?

Three things.

1.The company loses direction, is taken over by less competent management or implodes under its own weight e.g Walmart, GM, Apple.2. Government regulation or public pushback creates conditions for its dissolution. Think Bell, Standard Oil3. New competitors emerge. A giant slayer in this case, may initially not seem like a threat at all and may even operate in a different market space or industry from search or social media eg gaming, VR, IOT. Paul Graham has a good article on this.

Btw, I think FB is dying and that's part of the reason they acquired Whatsapp. It will be obvious in 5 years and they'll be gone in a decade or decade and a half.So is Apple,at least in its current form.

tjr 2 days ago 0 replies      
I distinctly remember when "whenever I wanted to search something" I just visited altavista.digital.com. And then, somewhat reluctantly, altavista.com.

Granted, they did not have anywhere near the deep and broad reach that Google currently has, but I would not think it impossible for someone else to come along and tilt things in their direction.

fitzwatermellow 2 days ago 0 replies      
The one company I believe may be on a path to a position of true "anti-obsolescence" is Amazon. I consider the way people younger than me use it for everything. Then I consider my own Prime usage which is up perhaps 100-200% over last year. And even after that I look at the future innovation's Amazon is planning: 1-Hr delivery via drone, dev friendly alexa tasks from anywhere. And I can't think of anyone that can currently be termed a "true" competitor. And I am clearly not the only one to notice. $AMZN stock up %50 since Feb ;)
rajeshamara 2 days ago 0 replies      
Only if Google / facebook stops inventing. Yahoo made a mistake of stagnation. Microsoft made a mistake of stagnation from 2000 to 2009 (Balmer period). Motorola made a mistake of stagnation. Apple is again making a mistake of stagnation. As long as companies not sitting on their arses and let the competition overtake them they will be fine.

Also you can live without FB but cannot live without google. You can remain days not visiting FB but everyday you will search atleast one time.

mathattack 2 days ago 0 replies      
I think No for both cases. Default monopolies can go out of favor very quickly, and new technologies can ramp up very quickly.

On Facebook: Remember that Google got the whole world to sign up for Google Plus with their circles. They didn't do anything with it, but it was a clear sign that you can sign up a good portion of the internet.

On Google owning search, if Apple goes downmarket in the phone market, they could crowd Google out of search on the phone. Or there may be some other new paradigm - searching out of apps, with a non-Google choice winning. And if the search algorithm is MUCH better, it could win. Bing doesn't need to be 5% better - it would need to be 500% better.

f_allwein 2 days ago 0 replies      
Yes. When I worked at Google, people were very aware that their market position is not a given and could change any time - eg as people are far less locked in to Google than they used to be to Microsoft in the 1990s. Eric Schmidt used to point to an article from the late 1990s saying "the search wars are over - Yahoo won"...

It wouldn't be easy obviously, but it is conceivable that someone comes up with something that is significantly better than Google/ FB, causing people to switch.

bwackwat 2 days ago 1 reply      
Basically, I believe it will be much harder for a competitor to reach the same capital as Google or Facebook.

Google and Facebook have massive networks, specialized storage strategies, proprietary protocols and hardware, and not to forget the actual data they have acquired. Lots of hard-to-acquire capital.

On the other hand, I do believe that both products could be better. Competitors could have better products, but not for a long time more capital.

wallace_f 1 day ago 1 reply      
Do you think a FB competitor that offered really nice encryption and privacy features would be successful?

I'm imagining an app that let's you choose where to store data, let's you store your data encrypted and offers message encryption, and of course allows you to sign up anonymously and permanently delete data.

I hate Facebook but I recognize it serves a useful function - I only use it because everyone else does.

mavenxinc 2 days ago 0 replies      
A year ago, I think you could have included Apple in this list and they have begun their spiral.
Ask HN: I think I'm good at quickly identifying dev talent. How to prove it?
12 points by mattm  3 days ago   16 comments top 10
DelaneyM 3 days ago 1 reply      
You become a recruiter.

Identifying dev talent is one (very important!) part of the job for dev managers, but not enough on its own to be successful.

The only pure application of that skill would be as a recruiter.

That said, you're almost certainly wrong. I can't find the quote/citation right now, but distinctly remember that over a decade of data at Google showed that only one person at the company was really individually exceptional at predicting performance as an interviewer (and he was a special niche case).

JSeymourATL 2 days ago 0 replies      
> How could I go about proving it to myself...

Much the same way Devs store projects on GitHub-- start building up your portfolio of talent profiles and notes on individuals that you interview & assess. It's a practiced art-- you become exponentially better the more people you evaluate. Also, understand that people do change and grow as they progress throughout their careers. Take the long view and be sure to follow up periodically.

The best executive leaders create a talent pipeline, typically meet & informally interview 2-3 people a month. Incidentally, this builds-up an amazing network of true contacts, which is to say NOT Linkedin contacts. The best primer on this process is Bradford Smart's Topgrading > http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/915182.Topgrading

> then selling this service if I am capable?

Connecting with buyers, in this case Hiring Executives falls into the specialty function of Sales & Business Development. Professional Services firms are always chomping at the bit for rainmakers. If you're serious about this path, take a development course like Miller Heiman > https://www.mhiglobal.com/

slidese 1 day ago 0 replies      
Most of the comments I've read here assumes these two things are equal:

1. A good programmer2. A good team member

They are not.

How to spot someone that fits in your team is much harder than to spot someone with talent.

Also, as someone pointed out you need to keep track of both hits and misses to assess your skill. I would guess it's easier to track someone if they're successful as opposed to someone who either is not successful or not successful publicly.

id122015 2 days ago 1 reply      
You can try it on me, I'd volunteer. Never been employed as a programmer but I'm curious to know if anyone would hire me, and if so what kind of employer would that be.
hkarthik 2 days ago 0 replies      
Identifying talent is not enough. You also need to know how to sell and close this talent. I say this as an engineering manager at a top tech company who got into hiring largely due to feeling like I could identify talent.

Selling and closing is a whole different ball game. You have to be a good story teller, a good listener, and you have to be geniune. You have to be relentless and unwilling to take no for an answer.

Whether you go into recruiting full time, move to management, or just be the engineer everyone uses to sell candidates, practice and hone your selling skills.

projectramo 2 days ago 0 replies      
Prove it to whom?

If you want to exploit the talent, I don't think becoming a recruiter is the best way to go (contra the other advice).

I am not a recruiter, but I don't think their challenge is (necessarily) identifying dev talent. They have to

1. Convince dev talent to sign up for the company2. Convince the company that they can find dev talent3. Look through a lot of dev talent

It's more like a broker. They have to find a particular talent/price mix that keeps bother parties happy.

malux85 2 days ago 0 replies      
Ah hour?!! That is NOT quick. Even Junior developers could identify strong talent if they sat with them for an hour and just talked.

Get it down to 10 minutes, and that would be quick!

JoachimSchipper 3 days ago 0 replies      
As to proving it to yourself - start tracking who you (don't) hire, and the outcomes. You can do this as an employee.
j45 3 days ago 0 replies      
You could become a headhunter for recruiters and get paid for successful finds.
miguelrochefort 2 days ago 1 reply      
This is trivial and any person can do it.
Ask HN: Best way to make quick, relatively simple HTML5 games today?
23 points by cableshaft  2 days ago   13 comments top 10
iends 2 days ago 3 replies      
Have you looked at http://phaser.io/ ? Lots of resources available for it, active IRC channel, even a few books written.
colanderman 2 days ago 0 replies      
I've always wondered, why more people don't use SVG for web games. It's easier to work with than HTML+CSS, and since you can specify simple animations in it, you can reduce the amount of work your game loop needs to do manually.
adiian 1 day ago 0 replies      
Here are my personal options for 2d games, based on my personal background(I developed Flash games):

- Construct2 is you want to create simple games without writing code. Simple to do standard games, hard if you need more control or more complex data structures. It contains exporters for different platform including mobiles(using html5 wrapper to execute html code, based on phonegap or something similar).

- GameMaker - quite similar to Construct2, a bit more powerful and it requires to write more code than Construct2, unfortunately in their own language. You can export games for different platforms(unlike Construct2 it generates and compile the code for each platform in native code) and for html. Each exporter should be brought so it makes this option the most expensive.

- CreateJS - the Adobe Html5 alternative. It recreates the class hierarchy from action3 flash, in html5 js. A tentative to recreate Flash in Html5, good enough. It has the advantage that it can export Flash graphics including vector graphics in an html library which can be used imported in your project.

- Phaser - A nice framework based/inspired/not an exact port of Flixel. It has nice features and it was written only for games so I would say generally it's better than CreateJS, in the same way Flixel was better than plain AS3. It can be combined with Pixi.js to webgl rendering.

- OpenFl - a flash inspired library written in Haxe. The advantage is that it can generate and compile the game in native code for virtually any platform that matters including HTML5. It can even import and use flash objects for graphics.

- LibGDX - write it in java, deploy it on multiple platforms, including html. It uses OpenGl for rendering, for the html export they use Google GWT to translate java code to javascript. It sounded for me as an interesting approach.

My advice is to pick one option and to go for it(the list is far away of being exhaustive). If you have java experience you can check CreateJS or OpenFl, if you want a codeless engine, Construct2 is more popular among html devs than GameMaker.

P.S. It seems Phaser can be easily used with ecma6.

tonyle 2 days ago 0 replies      
I came across this post a few years ago, reminds me of the javascript games written 15+ years ago. For a lot of use cases, This technique is simple and has good enough performance.http://buildnewgames.com/dom-sprites/

Also,take a look at http://createjs.com/.It is pretty familiar if you come from a flash background. The latest version of adobe flash/animate exports to createjs so you can keep using your old flash authoring skills for your assets.

However, If time is your major constraint, unity might not be as overkill as you might think.

kyle-rb 2 days ago 0 replies      
libGDX is a Java game engine that's relatively simple and lets you deploy to HTML5, Android, iOS, and desktop. PlayN.io is fairly similar I think, but I haven't used it.

2048 is actually somewhat of an odd case, since it was originally only an HTML5 game that was built to run in both the browsers of desktop and those of mobile devices. For this reason, the developer didn't actually port the game to Android/iOS until much later. Pretty much all the versions on the App Store/Google Play Store were 3rd party clones of the original, since it was relatively simple and open source.

tobr 2 days ago 0 replies      
PuzzleScript[1] sounds like it might work for what you want to do, at least for quick prototypes. It's a brilliant little online IDE for a puzzle game DSL.

It might seem like a toy, but there's a community of people who create genuinely good games in it.[2]

[1] http://www.puzzlescript.net/editor.html

[2] http://puzzlescriptgallery.tumblr.com

nblumoe 2 days ago 0 replies      
I really like https://www.scirra.com/construct2 for having fun and fast prototype iterations. Just be aware, that it is UI and click heavy, but yet powerful and flexible. I think it will be hard to manage large code bases in Construct, but that is something I have not yet gotten into with my simple hobby projects.
jason_slack 2 days ago 0 replies      
Take a look at Cocos Creator: http://cocos2d-x.org

Utilizes JavaScript and there will also be Lua and C++ support coming.

It is under active development, docs are good and there are plenty of complete game examples to learn from.

k__ 2 days ago 0 replies      
Phaser and Crafty are code oriented 2D game engines.

I think entity component system of Crafty scales a bit better than Phaser, but on the other hand Phaser has a bigger community.

slurppurple 2 days ago 0 replies      
Babylon.js is a pretty good option for 3d games
Ask HN: How is software consulting different than working on an internal team?
7 points by y1y1  1 day ago   2 comments top 2
rajanchandi 18 hours ago 0 replies      
It entirely depends on yourself and the type of work you can get. If you're an extroverted type, working in consulting may be a good experience. If you're highly creative but introverted type, you may not enjoy dealing with your client as much. If you're service oriented, you'd enjoy working with a client. If you're product oriented, you may prefer working on purely software/tech side of things!
kohanz 1 day ago 0 replies      
I've worked in both of those situations, but to be completely honest, I believe the variance in experiences introduced by different company cultures, leadership, team members, etc. is so much greater than any systemic effects from the nature of the company's business (e.g. product company vs. consultancy) that it would be pointless and misleading to generalize about one over the other. You can have both product companies and consultancies that will be enjoyable places to work at and it depends much more in the culture and leadership put in place by the decision-makers than whatever is driving the bottom line.
Ruby K-means implementation which can be easily adjusted to X-means
3 points by wlrm  1 day ago   discuss
Ask HN: How to handle staging environments?
7 points by fabianlindfors  2 days ago   7 comments top 5
seanwilson 1 day ago 0 replies      
Why not use Heroku for this? If it's a staging environment only for demos I can't see how you'd burn through much of your monthly free hours. Heroku makes setting up staging environment very easy.
penguinlinux 2 days ago 1 reply      
you can use an instance that has docker on it, then setup docker compose files with wordpress, git , apache and setup a port. then on the machine setup virtualhost to point to the entry tcp port of the docker instance. then all you have to do is build the docker instances . You can mantaint all that with git and handle all of your deployments that way.
saluki 1 day ago 0 replies      

Even if you're not using Laravel(PHP) it works for quickly spinning up a vps on digital ocean or AWS.

You can setup multiple dev/test sites on one droplet.

Deploy repo via github bitbucket.

It's super fast and easy.

We setup live site on it's own droplet then have another staging droplet. Develop locally with valet/homestead (laravel.com), deploy to staging using forge, deploy to production using forge.

Forge has quick deploy which deploys when you push to your repo.

There is also https://envoyer.io/ for zero downtime deployment.

mgberlin 2 days ago 1 reply      
I would highly recommend using Elastic Beanstalk on AWS. I use the python platform most of the time, but PHP is available as well. If you're a new user, you can get a year on a t2.micro for free, and even if you have to pay that usually works out to about thirty-ish dollars a month which is probably tenable.
emilburzo 2 days ago 0 replies      
When resources are tight, I'm a big fan of having a bare metal server + lxc + ansible.

I've also recently began looking into docker, but the update image dance seems like more work to me than the above.

Ask HN: Getting started with AI today?
10 points by jason_slack  2 days ago   6 comments top 3
DrNuke 22 hours ago 0 replies      
If looking for job opportunities, in addition to tech think of a field / industry or two you like and focus on their business model for your AI applications. Also make sure you understand when AI and machine learning are actually useful instead of merely silly: not every correlation is useful. Many times, nothing meaningful comes from them, however big your data sample is. Machine learning "emergency" is not going to replace the scientific method.
vshan 2 days ago 1 reply      
May not be hot tech like ML, but traditional symbolic AI is still pretty useful in stuff like Natural language processing. Plus, it's a great way to learn functional programming too.

Book rec: Computation Semantics with Functional Programming. It goes through the whole gamut of formal languages, lambda calculus, propositional logic, predicate logic, logical inference engines, nl semantics etc. It uses Haskell to build concrete examples for each section, and contains a concise tutorial on the language too. Very self-contained. No prerequisites required.

kiloreux 2 days ago 2 replies      
Of course there is (even plenny):

Caffe (Deep learning framework by berkeley) / C++ mainly

Theano / Python

Tensorflow / More Python fully support, but also supports C++

NLTK Natural language processing Toolkit / Python

scikit-learn / Python

Torch / Different interfaces

CNTK / C++

Opencv / C++ Python

I haven't covered them all, but please at the bottom of this list I am maintaining there is everything you need to know to get started


Ask HN: How do we go from 1K subscribers to 10K?
7 points by daverad  1 day ago   7 comments top 3
akulbe 12 hours ago 0 replies      
I'm asking because I have the same question, just on a smaller scale.

Is it more than a matter of just repeating what you did to get your first 1K customers? Because it seems like you're killing it, already, to get to 1000. I'd LOVE to be in that situation, but it's a different model of business.

It'd be interesting to hear how you got from 0 to 1000. In any case, best of luck. :)

cm2012 17 hours ago 0 replies      
Do you have any paid acquisition channels that work, or is all growth currently through word of mouth?
sharemywin 1 day ago 1 reply      
Just read this yesterday thought it was might help.


Ask HN: iOS Devs: Where do you get your clients / projects?
5 points by selfthrow  2 days ago   3 comments top
webtechgal 1 day ago 1 reply      
Not exactly into iOS dev but based on my experience, it might be worth checking out the following:

1. Freelancer.com2. PeoplePerHour.com3. Guru.com4. Upwork.com

All looked upon as 'fish markets' and 'sweat shops' by many which is not entirely inaccurate, but you will frequently find decently paying jobs too. You might have to struggle initially (with bottom-of-the-barrel jobs) in order to build up your profile and get some reviews, but once you have a few under your belt, things should start getting better. YMMV

The best minds of my generation
17 points by perseusprime11  3 days ago   9 comments top 5
numinary1 2 days ago 0 replies      
Perhaps the best minds are thinking about the challenges of teaching middle school special education in Detroit or how to deliver basic healthcare in East Africa. Are the minds of marketers better? Really?
yolesaber 2 days ago 2 replies      
More like highly privileged rich kids from Stanford and MIT are thinking about how to manipulate people into buying things they don't need.

The best minds can't be swayed from their dreams and goals. Otherwise were they truly the best minds to begin with?

dotcoma 3 days ago 1 reply      
> into buying things they don't need

with money they don't have, to impress people they don't like - George Carlin

mpbm 3 days ago 0 replies      
That's a natural extension of "software is eating the world".

The cost of experimenting with a small team making offers on the internet is small, but the potential returns are enormous. You can afford to have 100 offers rejected because when you find that 1 offer that catches on it really, really catches on.

The best minds recognize the cost/benefit analysis.

kasey_junk 2 days ago 0 replies      
No, they are building amazing software, infrastructure & services.

They are being paid by people who want to sell things.

Ask HN: UK Entrepreneurs, how does a brexit/remain vote affect your start up?
12 points by harel  3 days ago   18 comments top 5
icu 3 days ago 0 replies      
I too have felt conflicted about voting one way or the other. It has taken months of research and discussion for me to come to the conclusion that what is best for me in the short run is not what is best for my son and the country in the long term.

The thing that tipped the scales in my decision to vote leave was coming to the conclusion that democracy is the exercise of sovereignty.

The nature Sovereignty is binary, you either have it or you don't, and I felt it is too valuable a thing to give up as it had been paid for by the ultimate sacrifices of previous generations.

I also realised that leaving the EU doesn't preclude trade or special immigration or visa arrangements to be negotiated between the UK and the EU. So while there is the threat that the EU members would want to punish the UK for leaving but they would also be hurting their own economies and since EU economic growth has been low I don't think they would want to do that.

As a Fintech entrepreneur in London a Brexit might hurt new venture prospects in the short run. It will be harder to raise money, possibly harder to recruit and might be harder to grow into Europe.

Having said that, there is nothing to say that it isn't possible to overcome these challenges, for example hiring devs to work remotely from Europe or from anywhere in the world for that matter.

thenomad 2 days ago 0 replies      
If we end up with worse trade deals and mobility in the event of a Leave - which some rather extensive reading has convinced me is pretty likely (see https://medium.com/im-trying-to-fact-check-brexit , which has been my hobby over the past few weeks) - then that could directly affect me as most of my business is international. Some of my clients are domestic, so that business will almost certainly be affected as the UK's economy slows down or falls into recession.

The international stuff depends on the fine details, of course. Given the pound's likely to take a kicking in both the short and the long term being largely paid in dollars may have its upsides. But overall I'm not going to be at all thrilled if we end up voting Leave.

NetStrikeForce 2 days ago 3 replies      
In case of Brexit I might move my company outside the country (I'm an EU national, not British) and me and my family probably follow suit shortly after. It depends on whether there's visa drama (if there is, then I'll eff off) or the UK remains as part of the free movement of people agreements (like Switzerland or Norway).

It is a shame that fear, lies and racism (which is, again, fear) make people consider leaving the EU, which is the single good thing that happened to Europe since the end of WW2. It is not just about what's the EU (several discussions including some in HN have shown once and again how the EU is completely democratic), but about what the EU could be.

I do respect their sovereignty to choose kicking out EU citizens and requiring them to go through the visa crap, but I can't help but feeling unwanted.

All the reasons to leave the EU seem nave, as almost none of them will change (immigration, adherence to EU regulations, trade agreements, free movement of people) or, even worse, will be forced fed into Britain's mouth without the chance to vote against them.

If I finally have to leave, I wish them all the best as I consider them my friends, but I sincerely prefer to spend my time with friends that appreciate me as much as I appreciate them.

glenndebacker 2 days ago 0 replies      
I'm no Entrepreneur but speaking as a European consumer it would me effect me in the sense that I would think twice of where to spend my money. I think it would have the reflex of spending it rather within the EU than further weakening it.
ig1 2 days ago 1 reply      
Spotify. Just-Eat. King. Skype. Transferwise.

Everyone of them was founded in the EU but became a billion dollar startup while headquartered in London.

Developers, product managers, founders - it's hard to find any startup of size in London which doesn't draw 20-30%+ of it's staff from Europe (and beyond) - London has hugely benefitted from the talent pool of Europe. It's hard to imagine the startup scene existing without it.

(we also sponsor work visas for international staff, it's a nightmare compared to hiring someone from the EU)

Ask HN: Need Advice with UK's Tier 1 Exceptional Talent Visa
8 points by uk-visa  2 days ago   1 comment top
afarrell 2 days ago 0 replies      
As a US citizen who finished up a UK job search a while ago, I looked at this visa a while ago and concluded:

1) It was meant for The sort of folks that earn titles like "Principal Engineer"

2) It was going to be way easier to get a Tier-2 visa sponsorship.

My advice would be to reach out to the influential people who already follow your blog, have have gone to your talks, or who use your product.

Ask HN: What company/companies would you acquire and why?
7 points by max_  3 days ago   5 comments top 2
DiabloD3 3 days ago 3 replies      

I think with the right leadership, they could probably become relevant to the market again. They've been playing so much catch up for the last several years, and also been making several missteps in how they handle user data inside of their operating systems.

Plus, generally pissing off iOS/OSX software devs doesn't really help sell the platform very well, as some developers have dropped iOS and OSX as a legitimate platform, and develop for Android and/or Windows only.

thowaway032498 2 days ago 0 replies      

Because sometimes, you just have too much cash and need to burn some of it.

Do you build from scratch or integrate open source?
3 points by jjeaff  3 days ago   3 comments top 3
dalke 3 days ago 0 replies      
How much is your time worth? If it takes you $10K of engineering time to roll your own solution, and delays you from shipping your code by a week, is it worthwhile?

That options aren't only "roll your own with open source" or "pay vendors". Have you looked into paying one of the open-source developers for advice, or to do the integration for you, and push changes back upstream? After all, if you think you have to bend it to your needs, then perhaps you don't know how to use it right, or perhaps it's useful feedback where a simple change would help others as well.

I ask because in talking to people, many forget this option even exists. It's as if the idea of paying for open source is a foreign concept.

zhte415 2 days ago 0 replies      
Create a business plan for your problem.

Outline solutions, timelines, 'new work' (stuff you've not done before r.e. custom, vs custom r.e. integrating an existing solution).

Use fact-based thinking and discussion, eliminating any per-emptive questioning you can think of in advance. Treat each other as equals, as by now, you should be on an equal playing field. Don't take or make anything as a personal hit.

saluki 2 days ago 0 replies      
For ticket management or knowledge bases I would lean toward using open source or paying for a service.

For CRM (or anything else) if it's something unique/valuable to your business where spending some development time would bring value and time savings then go with something custom. It would help if you have a development team that can build it quickly (Rails/Laravel) so the cost/time doesn't get out of control. Building the basics and adding needed features would work well.

Ask HN: What language has the best developer experience?
11 points by xupybd  3 days ago   31 comments top 17
nowarninglabel 3 days ago 2 replies      
I think this is kind of like asking what car has the best experience or what hotel has the best experience. It depends so much on what you want from it that there's no clear recommendation.
projectramo 2 days ago 2 replies      
You should probably ask about domain-language-IDE combos.

For example (and these are going to be controversial, but they're just examples):

Datascience - Python - Spyder IDE

iOS - Swift - Xcode

For the web, you get a lot more competition because it is a little harder to develop, and there are lots of backends and front ends to pick between. Probably:

Web app- Django/Rails/Restful Node - Sublime, Dev tools in chrome

and so on...

saluki 2 days ago 0 replies      
Laravel (PHP) has been a great experience.

ComposerValet/Homestead (Local Development)Forge (Builds Servers/Deploys Repos)Envoyer (Zero Downtime Deployment)Spark (SaaS Application Starting Point)

It keeps getting better and better.


NicoJuicy 3 days ago 0 replies      
I programmed in a couple of languages (nodejs, python, ruby, ..) and on my work i use c#

I always believe that c# has the best developer experience within the tools of Microsoft ( Eg. Visual Studio).

Try out Visual Studio community edition and see for yourselve

arcanus 3 days ago 1 reply      

Nothing else has the right mix between a high level, portable programming language, and the low, system level call capabilities of C.

bbcbasic 1 day ago 0 replies      
Haskell. Terse language means ide is not necessary and vim with your fave plugins does the trick nicely. No need for debugger as you can compose your program beautifully and test the last ounce of shit out of every little component using properly based testing.
FuturePromise 3 days ago 1 reply      

 1. C# (Using Microsoft tools) 2. Erlang (Very robust, solid language) 3. Python (Lots of users, good tools.)

ivan_ah 3 days ago 0 replies      
Python is very good for beginners. It has lists and dictionaries as native objects, which are very versatile.

JavaScript is very good too because you have the "developer tools" in your browser and you don't need to install anything.

Don't have much experience with other languages to talk about them...

kek918 2 days ago 0 replies      
I probably don't have as much experience as others, but I've dabbled around in a few languages and I think my best/most fun experience was when I were learning and creating a couple GUI desktop programs with Qt framework in C++ using their Qt Creator IDE. It's really a blast to work with and everything just feels in harmony.
panic 3 days ago 1 reply      
Of the languages I've used, Visual Basic (pre-.NET). I never used Hypercard, but I hear it was pretty good too. Newer languages tend to be too complicated to have great development environments.
deepaksurti 2 days ago 1 reply      
Common Lisp (Emacs, Slime) or LispWorks (which has a free personal edition). After using live image based development, going back to the edit, compile, test cycle is like going back to the stone age.

And CL has libraries. See quick lisp. [1]

My own comparison with Python, which I have been using regularly. Python is a toy Lisp with all the adult parts hidden.

[1] https://www.quicklisp.org/beta/

brudgers 2 days ago 0 replies      
Racket. It's an ecosystem of languages. If it doesn't provide the language the developer wants, the developer can just make the changes.
hoodoof 3 days ago 1 reply      
It's a matter of personal preference.

Explore a few languages, give them a try, see which one you like, then your question is answered.

AnimalMuppet 2 days ago 0 replies      
Java with IntelliJ.

Um, that is, as long as you can just do Java or Android or something. If you're having to get into EJB and Spring and the corporate heavyweight development environment, that's not a pleasant world to work in, even with IntelliJ.

RaitoBezarius 2 days ago 0 replies      
IMHO, Rust. Rust is very developer-friendly, great doc, user-friendly error messages, system level, cross-compilation friendly (\o/), you can experiment in the browser, etc
deathtrader666 3 days ago 0 replies      
Elixir and Elm are your best bets right now.
gamedna 3 days ago 0 replies      
The one that solves the problem in the least amount of time with the least amount of frustration and bugs.
Tell HN: HackerNews is the greatest site to browse in Cuba
14 points by ChicagoBoy11  3 days ago   6 comments top 3
ChicagoBoy11 3 days ago 0 replies      
On a sidenote, you cant help but walk around here and also feel that, should commercial relations someday be fully normalized, there is going to be an economic boom here unlike any the world has ever seen
ck2 3 days ago 2 replies      
Is Cuban internet censored like China?

Surprised there isn't sat internet more available there, you can get that on even remote islands in other parts of the world for a couple hundred US$ per month.

brador 3 days ago 1 reply      
Try http://skimfeed.com

Just browsing the titles is enough to get a feel for the days events.

Ask HN: How do you use (Linux) containers?
4 points by simonebrunozzi  2 days ago   discuss
Ask HN: How to tell my client to stop working on his failing startup (or change)
7 points by one_shot_ask  20 hours ago   4 comments top 2
jeffmould 19 hours ago 1 reply      
Simple answer = quit.

If you are only working as a consultant and continue to charge him for development, yet are complaining about an endless circle of changes, not to be rude, but you are as much part of the problem as he is.

If you are unable to quit due to a contract or some other legally bound commitment, I would suggest stopping development and working to convince him to get a third party review. It could be something as simple as a communication breakdown between the two caused by frustrations from the entire situation. Having a third party give their opinion might help settle the matter out.

If you aren't in a contract, and you want to continue to work with him for some reason, you may want to get a contract drawn up that lays out a framework for development and testing. Force him to the timeline and framework.

In the end though, if he is scared to sell there is nothing you can do about it no matter what you try. Sometimes it is just better to cut your losses.

percept 12 hours ago 0 replies      
In addition to the commonsensical advice, a more radical suggestion would be that if you believe in the project and see opportunities the client doesn't, you partner up (with all the risk that entails).

I've actually turned down opportunities like this one for the same reason: it hits too close to home. ("Just go hire somebody cheap on one of those freelancer sites.")

Ask HN: How do you cope with routine in your daily programming job?
4 points by wofo  21 hours ago   1 comment top
waterphone 20 hours ago 0 replies      
I don't. It was fun while I was learning how to do new things and discovering solutions to problems, but once I learn how to do something I no longer enjoy doing it. I have not found a solution to this problem, and so I simply don't enjoy my work and in fact resent it most of the time.
Ask HN: Pros and Cons if GitHub were to add a Q/A tab like the Issues tab?
2 points by supersan  1 day ago   1 comment top
percept 12 hours ago 0 replies      
I often find questions in 'Issues' helpful, and am disappointed by projects that forbid them, because sometimes an obscure issue doesn't appear in the normal channels--mailing lists/SO/etc.--and at other times it seems like a means of stifling open discussion (ditto "I'm locking this thread").

Labels offer one simple (and existing) solution for this.

Ask HN: Tattoos
4 points by taigeair  1 day ago   4 comments top 2
greenspot 1 day ago 1 reply      
Very nice, you should change the title to "Tattoos by Countries Map".

Re tattoos, I don't know why so many people are doing this too. Sometimes I think it must be a huge misunderstanding: I observe tattooed people longer and more intense because every time I think 'why'. Why did they do this. Often the tattoos are ugly, faded, huge and then I stare even more and longer. And I guess that tattooed people misunderstand my staring and think I am attracted to them and affection must be the reason I watch them. Since many will watch them they must think, wow my tattoo makes people look at me, I need more tattoos.

On the other side they make people look at them and maybe that better than nothing or no attraction and maybe this initial slight disgust could turn into demands the longer you watch because you discover other beauties of the person.

davelnewton 1 day ago 0 replies      
Why do people do anything they do?

The answer to "why" will be as diverse as the people that have them anyway--I have mine because I like them and they're meaningful to me.

[Freelancer] Looking for work
4 points by heroic  1 day ago   1 comment top
webtechgal 1 day ago 0 replies      
       cached 26 June 2016 12:05:01 GMT