Normally I'd say sorry, but this turned out to be so amusing that I guess I'm not sorry. Carry on!
Edit: you guys blow my mind.
So maybe percentage is how many people viewed the front page but didn't upvote it (since you can't downvote it)...
... A-a-and it's gone now...
Looks like the percentages appeared, then HN went down briefly (server restart, sorry @dang), and now the percentages are gone.
>Posting in epic thread.
Notes: VimWiki. I prefer all my thoughts in plain text, I love OneNote and Evernote but can't stand the thought of loosing my years worth of notes to propriety software. My wiki is structured the same as my file system, with as few directories as possible.
Essentially, the road markings are too shoddy, and it's hard to work around - but there'll be a beta of some description before too long.
1. I would look at your CV and see your narrow focus but I would still be wondering based on your experiences whether you could move to the technology we use.
2. Good/great developers seem to be in short supply, if you can prove your ability to understand code, build robust things and ship you would be just fine in my interview.
3. I think you would find a lot of very similar technology in the Java field and it wouldn't be a huge hurdle for you to pick that up if you have a good and deep understanding of how you currently deliver apps using ASP. If you could show on your portfolio how you have picked up Java/Ruby/Python/whatever based on your 20 years of experience and show you understand "how things work" rather than the nitty gritty of a the language then you would beat a lot of the people we interview.
In short, if you came to an interview for a Java job I would be more interested in how easy you would be able to learn what we do with Spring etc and how much and how deeply you understood the stack you were working with rather than worrying too much about you not have "5 years of Spring MVC" or whatever other blurbs HR stuck on the job description. I've interviewed a lot of people who have no clue whatsoever how MVC works and have no notion about how things fit together to make a system, they just fill in the gaps in the Spring/Hibernate/library config and write a few lines of code and "it just works". If you have the deep knowledge I think you can easily take a senior/architect role in Java-land.
SQL Server is in high demand and most programmers have little interest in the DBA role, yet it is crucial (read "highly-valued") in most organizations.
Organizations want young programmers/developers. But when they think of DBAs they want someone with experience. So grow a beard!8-))
I ran the software dept for a small consulting company and yes you'd probably never get a call back from me if you were applying purely as a developer. While we have hired late 30-somethings developers, it's usually because they offer some fairly unique tech skillset (i.e., a few years of production-quality FPGA experience, not a couple months dorking around with "whatever hot new technology" on github--that's something I look for in a fresh-grad). So I think for a purely tech role, beyond getting another job at a similar company doing similar tech, you're a long shot at best.
But beyond that, the one thing that would case me to look at your resume is if you were wanting a leadership position and had the corresponding soft skills and experience. It sounds like you do, so highlight that, and work on it. The advantage there is that management skills: talking to stakeholders, setting expectations and timeframes, finalizing deliverables...are all applicable no matter what the underlying technology. So there's no reason you'd have to limit yourself to ASP management roles.
My previous company had lots of young developers doing engineering with lots of new technologies, but they'd have never delivered a thing had they not been guided by some experienced devs who actually spent most of their time in Excel (or trello or Jira or whatever we happened to be using to manage the particular project).
Ruby on Rails opportunity for java and .net developers; note:I am not affiliated with covermymeds, heard about it on the Ruby Rogues podcast.
I'm a senior dev, but still relatively early in my career (~8 years). I've been thinking about your exact situation a lot lately as I have interviewed several candidates from various backgrounds. I see a lot of people with lots of experience, but they didn't make the cut after taking our coding tests and technical interviews that younger less experienced devs breezed through. I wonder if I will be in the same boat in 5-10 years myself because I haven't kept up with the newest technology. Like you, I have no desire to become a manager and I'm quite happy being an individual contributor.
Also being a relatively new Dad (toddler and a newborn on the way) only makes it that much harder to keep up!
- You are going to present yourself an authority after certain period of time.
- Learning new technology and be accountable to outer world.
This is what I have been doing on my blog(http://blog.adnansiddiqi.me/)
If you want, you may make guest posts related to things you are learning.
I solved that problem by bootstrapping a startup with consulting/development for other startups that are viable but weak technically, this gives me a lot of variety in side work while also funding my main startup.
In addition I'm currently in the process of setting up another 'startup' as a non-profit (which I'm funding out of pocket until I have a complete product at which point I'll create a charity, assign all IP to it and open the source, I wanted to pay it forward), that one is going to be a complete health management system for patients with chronic or long term medical issues (this one came about as a result of my having chronic issues essentially I'm building the thing I looked for when I got ill and didn't exist) - which complies with all the standards and legislation applicable to local and national government systems, effectively I'm building the system that should already exist for end users.
If so, maybe you could make an argument to adopt new technologies there while keeping your large pay check. If you make a business focused case for adopting new tech, you might find success.
Problem to Solve:
So, how does adopting new tech save money and/or make money?
Crude Proposed Solution:
Talented developers care about their tools, so if you are using dated techniques / technologies you are alienating potential new hires which could add significant value to the company.
The younger programmers coming out of school do not want to program in COBOL. They want to invest in technologies which will increase their marketability as a developer.
So by adopting newer technologies / techniques you reduce your risk of becoming a slave to a dwindling developer community. A community which has stopped growing and is bleeding devs, starting with the most talented. You also open up your company up to new opportunities where they can higher younger talented devs for cheap. You can mitigate problems caused by inexperience by giving them specialist roles which will decrease the amount ramp up time required for them to start adding value to the company.
This is a very knee jerk response. I do not feel as though I have proposed an actionable plan that is well thought out. I hope I have proposed an idea that is worth exploring.
Persuade your existing company to adopt new tech in terms of saving/making money and by reducing future risk (a potentially mortal risk) of problems caused by tech rot.
I would suggest finding a job where you can leverage your experience in .NET Web Forms, while picking up the pedigree for MVC.
So, what does 'worth it' mean to you? I see money and flexibility as the plusses of your current job... maybe that's all you need from the job. Could you keep this one and do something additional to get at whatever 'worth it' means to you?
Hope this helps
With 20 years of experience you potentially bring far more to the table than "just" your dev skills. The great thing about being a developer is that you touch a lot of other domains...often at a fairly detailed level of understanding (I learned more than I ever wanted to know about the credit card industry by developing commercial credit card processing software for gasoline dispensers many years ago).
Of course, this is how many devs end up becoming managers...though you say that's not where you want to go. But there are other paths as well. For example, a Product Manager with strong development skills can have a significant edge over someone that's come up strictly through marketing.
People who can straddle the boundaries between domains of knowledge have unique value. At this point in your career, you likely possess knowledge and skill beyond just ASP.net development...skills that startups or companies would find valuable.
I originally came out of physics around the time of the collapse of the SSC project. I saw colleagues with freshly minted PhD's in theoretical physics (NOT a marketable degree...except for driving a cab) go off to Wall Street and become quants...and do quite well.
So the core question is: are you locked into thinking of yourself as just one thing ("developer"), in which case the search is for what kind of developer you want to be next...or can you think of yourself as someone whose years of experience bring unique and valuable expertise...in which case the search should be broader and more unconventional.
It's less about what the external trends are; more about how you can reset your internal self-image...and your willingness to make the investment to bring that into reality.
Of course that means adopting entirely new strategies for finding where your skills have value...those types of jobs aren't posted on HR job boards.
Personally, I've made some huge career and domain jumps over the years (physics, software, large-scale databases, robotics, biotech...and various startups). It can be challenging...and a little scary (but only in the roller-coaster/skydiving sense), but It's also made for an exciting life that's largely been quite financially rewarding.
Never be afraid to jump out of the box...
Chances are, you will be successful and unhappy at the next job.
Next: Web programming is something junior devs can do. (Maybe not as well, but they can do it, and for less money.) You need to move on to harder things, where your experience is worth more money.
What harder things? You mentioned SQL Server. You say it's "losing relevance with the ORMs/EFs of the world", but there's more to the world than that, and I strongly doubt SQL Server is going away. Find places where it is in use, and go there.
Alternately, you can try to move up to architect of someplace with a big web presence, but I'm less clear on how you make that shift.
here's the kicker: only learn so much that you know a little more than the other guys in the companies doing web forms, and then
market yourself as the guy
who knows the legacy code base, knows the organizational inand outs, knows the systems, and who's going to help transition them to MVC ( and newer tech )
so you're a guy ( or gal ) with little experience in MVC teaching folks with no experience in MVC, how to transition to MVC.
this is a niche, and you'd be perfectfor it.it'll be stimulating as there is the conceptual challenge of bridging the two realms, the satisfaction of using your extensive experience, and the excitement of growing yourself into something new.
i'm excited for you. not many people will be able to be at the right place and the right time to do this. and it sounds like, with a bit of results, this could spin into your own consulting or dev shop serving this technical debt.
this path works and the future is bright for people like you.
Perhaps a great feature to make such a client's slow death through acquisition even more desirable would be seamless end-to-end encryption so that users' emails provided no marketing data.
You can always find people who will complain about any product. But the strong enough pain for them to pay and switch is whole another ballgame. Most will shriek away as soon as they have to pay for a product and change their routine/familiarity of using a known bundled product.
> Mailbox.app isn't very good. Mail.app isn't either.
If you lead any discussion or discovery with such statements, you will always find people who agree with the statement. Most are just reflecting with the sentiment in your question/statement. A good example of this behavior is seen on the segment of Jimmy Kimmel's late night TV show. His people go out on street and ask strangers for their opinion on 'obvious make believe' news and statements. The responses of strangers are hilarious.
It is not a particularly good way to validate market.
I haven't tried out Mailbox.app but as I understand it only works on Yosemite so that's not an option for me.
I'd also pay up to 50$ if the application is stable, handles mail only (no "productivity suite") and will be updated and maintained for a long time.
For Android, an excellent resource are the example apps found at the CommonsWare website, who also have an accompanying book. Download these examples and start playing around with them, or use whatever approach you used to learn webdev .
Otherwise, Google's docs are pretty high quality.
Finally, even if you're a Vim/emacs kind of guy (like I am), I recommend using Android Studio for Android development, at least at first. It has some excellent resources for learners (like a very good autocomplete).
I did 3 things to prepare for the transition:
1) I completed the Stanford iOS course, including most of the assignments
2) I read the Big Nerd Ranch iOS book from cover to cover.
3) I spent about 3 months recreating dozens of interesting features / visual elements from popular apps.
I promise you, if you do these 3 things, you will be very well prepared to take a position in mobile dev.
The closest thing to a viable airline startup is probably Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation, effectively a joint venture between huge conglomerates with existing experience in aircraft component manufacture and leasing. The aircraft they're due to roll out soon may well be a commercial failure.
If you do not have a means to tell those short-lived uninstallations from uninstallations by long-term users, those numbers are about as meaningless as comparing the number of play store page visits to the number of installations. Remember when the first online retailers panicked about abandoned virtual shopping carts?
Some things that appear to be missing (from the google page, I didn't actually try it):
A way to sleep/snooze a reminder for a specific period of time.
Per-todo item auto-sleep rules. (Sleep, and just stay as a notification? Sleep and go away? Sleep and alarm again?)
Options for what kind of alert - noisy, quiet, speak the alert, buzz, start quiet, get louder. (All per todo, not global.)
Does it turn on the screen when there is an alarm? It shouldn't.
A guarantee that no alerts will be "lost" if the device is off when the reminder should have gone off.
Way, way more flexible options for reminders. You need things like: Remind for 4 days, then sleep for 2 weeks. Or every other week, but only on these days of the week. There are many patterns.
They way you program that is start with a basic repeat, then you add exclusions, "not on these, days/weeks/months/dayofweek".
Next you add "don't start until date", and "stop after date".
Then you add unlimited "don't alarm on this date", and "alarm on this date", where they just add a list of them.
Next you need multiple alarms per todo - the first one is just a notification, and if I dismiss it the rest of the alarms go away. The next alarm is a short quiet one. And then a loud one. But the user picks what kind of alarm, and how much before the event. They can add as many pre-alarms as they like.
I have not found a good reminder program, very very very few have flexible enough reminders. The best I've found is https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.splunchy.a... - install it just to check out how to do complex alarms, and complex repetitions. It's a beta though, with bugs, so I'm not suggesting it for use, just to see examples.
Do you want to make a comprehensive alarm program? Or do you want something simple? There is a market for both.
Offers in-app purchases
I end up uninstalling it quickly (after 1 try), those ads in apps are really annoying for the user.
It's not the developers fault, but the ad system on either Android or iOS are really annoying, even if the app has all the features, for me the ads kill it.
One thing that I haven't seen yet (and I haven't tried yours) is a way to add a task through the notification screen. I don't want a widget on my screen, and having to flip to the right screen to load the app is enough work that I just don't do it.
Also, try to find the uninstall rates for other todo apps. I personally in a moment of self realization decide to make todos, but the very next day I get fed up and uninstall the app, maybe thats common across a lot of users?
Arrange user tests, ask people who are unfamiliar to your product to download and try. You could learn a ton from that experience watching people using your baby.
Another option is to record user actions in an anonymised way, upload that metrics and analyse, compare it to installation where they haven't removed it.
PS: I believe apps should be paid for.
Step 1: Make a quality game with preferably some bit of originality. Step 2: Hope you can run into one of these guys or know someone.
Games is by far the most competitive and coveted feature space. We were featured multiple times in the Books category for our interactive childrens book. This is a far less competitive category with far lower numbers so it didn't require too much luck with meeting/knowing someone.
The book itself sounds fine. The way you're selling the book (both on here and on LearnPub) could be improved. You need to decide what the point is REALLY meant to be, sure the theme is emulators, but if you have to describe it without using the word emulators or talking about any specific tech, how would that sound (e.g. "educational," "history," etc).
The financial industry in London does seem to attract a lot of contractors. Its also fairly corporate style languages that look for a lot of the time (Java .NET).
While you are looking for that next great idea, get the skills so an investor believes that you can execute on that great idea.
I think at the core of your approach for starting a startup is to make money. Apologize if that's not the case but from one of your comments,
> It seemed like local startups are getting funded with half baked ideas or clones and I thought that I could do just as well as them so I was pretty hesitant to find a job
This. maybe the reason, and anyway, I wish you the best.
- follow your passion, not the money. when you work on your startup, do you truly enjoy at least some part of it, or just following the hype or hoping to become millionaires?
- are you well off where money is not an issue? if money is an issue, get a job; you can choose to work with well-off Malaysian startup like GrabTaxi.
- rather than keep thinking about money making startup, just work on small projects which you found interesting. e.g. https://levels.io/12-startups-12-months/
2. Publish it to the world and get it in front of as many likely users as possible.
3. Based on the feedback of users, give up or push ahead. Don't spend more than a few months on any project unless you're 100% sure it's awesome. Just do something new.
4. Repeat until you've found something both you and users agree is great.
You only have to be right once to have a big impact.
You won't stumble upon ideas locked in your room. You must get a job, any job, and look at all the problems surrounding you.
Think about timing, luck, skill, and opportunity.
luck = preparation + opportunityopportunity=get out there
Just my 2c, not knowing exactly how feasible this is for you.
> Just a bit of background. I'm 23 years old this year.
You're still young, don't worry, the sun is still rising in your life, but don't just sit back and watch it.
> Graduated last year from a top university in UK with a Bachelors(Hons) Chemical Engineering. Right after I graduated, I went back to my home country Malaysia. I always knew I wanted to start a startup.
Congratulations, with an engineering degree from a top UK university, apart from whatever you learned and whoever you met, migration to other countries is easier for you.
> In fact, I did try to start a couple of startups -Tripadvisor-ish for students, Groupon clone and some small 'projects' during the summers like trying to sell "pure fruit juice" during carnivals and stuff like that. None worked out.
You've failed several times early, that's good, failure is a good teacher and failing is much harder when you have a spouse and two kids. The important thing is to know why you failed and learn what you should and shouldn't do next time. Hopefully there were people to give you feedback. You also need to look at your ideas in a more fundamental and original way. The desire to solve a problem and a way to the solution should come first, not the startup. Describing startups as "Tripadvisor for students" , "Hackernews for ballet dancers" , "Mixpanel for paper trails" betrays a wrong mindset. An example of doing it the right way would be "I have an idea for a case that allows you to use electronics with magnetic storage in places that have strong passive magnetic fields, I should start a company to sell this to the several industries in my state"
> Last year when I came back, tried to start an online grocery startup but within 2 months, I just knew it wasn't feasible unless I had some decent funding or some sort.
Be glad you didn't have enough money to spend to setup an online grocery.
> For the next 6 months, I literally just stayed in my room trying to come up with ideas, but none came up.
You should've expected that, isolating yourself in your room isn't the place to come up with ideas. You need to go out, look at what people are doing, talk to them, do things, be busy, go to events. Maybe some people have the ability to generate ideas upon request, but for me, it happens when you're not looking, like at a party, in the shower, when driving. You don't 'come up' with ideas, you 'get' ideas.
> Ever since then, Ive been trying to sell an animal feed called rumen bypass fat(dads idea), but no customers so far.
Did you study the market? Were animals hungry and farmers broke and was your feed cheaper and better?
> If you asked me what I really want in life, Id say I want to make a difference on a large scale.
Why so grandiose? Anyway, a lot of people seem to want that. What you want in life shouldn't be what you want in a startup. In life, I hope I become a good father, a good husband, spread joy, reduce suffering. I could do that if I made sure my neighbor never went hungry, or by solving world hunger - win, win.
> Id like to start a startup that solves hard engineering/science problem.
Good, so find the problem and the startup will follow.
> The local startup scene is still playing catch up at the moment. The hot stuffs are ecommerce, on demand startups etc...
You gotta catch up before you can lead, so are you bold enough to get into the local startup scene and move it forward?
> Hence, Im not particularly excited about joining the startups in the local scene and I would like to avoid joining big corporate companies. Any advice?
You are both co-founders. He is taking considerable risk along with you and neither the product nor the market have been proved yet. Split the founder's equity 50-50 with identical terms.
Your investment, along with the rest of the F&F money should be written up as convertible notes. You will get that money back (plus interest) in the form of cash or stock (at a discounted conversion) when the company succeeds. Obviously, since he is not an investor, your co-founder won't get any of that.
Finally, you are both employees. Since you are also both co-founders you typically don't issue additional equity. However, if you both feel it is the fair thing to do then you could issue stock options to yourself, as the CEO, to make up for the salary cut. 5%, vesting over 4 years, would be typical for a CEO (with salary), but then even a fully-paid CTO would expect to get 2-3%. All things being equal, and assuming you don't both take employee stock options (because it is just more paperwork) I would say that your 50% salary cut is worth a couple of percent in options, at most.
The big variable here isn't your personal stake in the company, it is the success of that company. It is important that all parties feel that the split is equitable and they are full engaged in the process. Treating the guy who has chosen to join you at this early (and very risky) stage as anything less than a cofounder could make the difference between him making a superhuman effort to help the company succeed and treating it as just a job. Deal with the investment and compensation issues seperatly.
Oh, and take the hit to pay a decent attorney to get all this written up (corp docs, co-founder docs, stock plan, convertible notes) and filed properly. A few $k now will save major problems down the road and make your company much more appealing to investors.
Good luck with the startup :-)
> He is not taking any pay cut ...
> I'll be taking 50% of my original salary.
> I am the business guy ...
Does your "technical guy" know you're posting this? Why would you consider having an employee when you have no income?
That said, don't expect "co-founder" performance from an employee. If you think you need the technical person to be as committed as you are, you should align their goals with yours i.e. make them a co-founder.
From my point of view equity is to keep people interested , feel that they need to really put in the effort and it can be a trade off for a lower salary whilst it is starting. An employee will always want to go home at the end of the day.
So not lack of trust, but rather competition is driving the phenomena you're describing.
1. The "person" who wants the name is a fictitious person, not an actual human individual who deserves consideration as a human being. There's no point of "being cool" toward a company, it's just out to get what it can: asking for your username is just an example of the ruthless logic under which company's operate.
2. The value to the company is high enough that they have invested time in approaching you and should you decide to give up your name, will invest all the time in actually transferring it.
3. If you do transfer it, don't be surprised if the company sells it or does something equally unexpected. Acquiring the name is a business transaction. Nothing more. Nothing less.
Finally, if you don't care about the name and don't want to be bothered, then let it go so you can do something you care about and are willing to be bothered by.
If you offer a price, the company could send that email to GH as evidence that your account violates the ToS.
If someone else wants it, you're not at all obligated to give it to them.
If you do entertain the idea of giving it to them, you're very much entitled to compensation.
But I guess there is not one right way to fill it out. In my opinion it is the process of filling it out that is valuable.
Maybe you want to add more pages based on what you think is important.
2) for the same reason many people will not sign an NDA (trust, hassle) you may want them to- trust, commitment.
3) even if an NDA only serves to regulate "the aftermath", that too can have value, especially in the rare but possible cases of mis-use of information e.g. by a competitor...
Why I Won't Sign Your NDA (svbtle) (ryanckulp.com)
Show HN: Why sign a NDA when you can just pinky swear instead? (pinky-swear.herokuapp.com)
Why I Won't Sign Your NDA (medium.com)
When startups should sign non disclosure agreements (startacus.net)
Don't ask me to sign your NDA (medium.com)
Should freelancers in gamedev industry sign NDAs? (t-machine.org)
Why I Won't Sign Your NDA (landonschropp.com)
Ask HN: Would you sign an NDA?
Why You Shouldn't Ask Us to Sign Your NDA (atomicobject.com)
Ask HN: A potential investor in my startup asked me to sign an NDA. Should I?
Ask HN: What does it mean to sign NDA?
Here is what I will do. Give them access to a sandbox but let them create their own userid for it if possible using their email etc. This way, you now know how many actual users are trying your app.
This will also reduce the number of non-serious users as well. Yes this may cause some users to not try the app but in my experience, any user who does not give you at least their email to try your app is very unlikely to become a paying customer.
You could think of intent to explore sandbox as a slightly advanced stage in engagement with potential customer. The top of the funnel could just be a visitor who downloads a fact sheet about your space or just download pricing sheet from your website (mapbox does it nicely without being intrusive). And they don't spam. That is one good way to populate top of the funnel.
The sandbox access is another stage in your funnel. I am assuming you would like more folks to try your sandbox, without friction or as less friction as possible without giving too much information.
1. You could just let them play in a generic sandbox site without even email / registration and then subtly ask them to register and reserve the site, if they would like to come back.
This is like Stripe. Classy and confident that your product is loved and folks will register.
2. You could ask only for email id and allow them to get to a separate sandbox site. They could name the site later if they like it. You know that only those who complete registration process are more likely serious users to engage later with smart follow-ups. Those who bounce off & abandon are more likely not interested in your product. This is what we do at Chargebee - our product is serious in nature (shameless plug: we do billing with REST API on top of Stripe, Braintree & other gateways with all kinds of payment methods including card) .
3. If you are a 2 member team and only want to focus on very few serious users, then having a card upfront for trial acts as entry barrier. This allows only serious users to get in but with better conversions. I think you are not inclined and very few SaaS services do this. (aweber.com has a paid $1 trial as well).
You should definitely test one or more of these options. But to start with a simple sandbox to explore product is definitely a good way to measure engagement, see where they click & explore product. And then derive insights based on that.
Then you could iterate to see if having email id for registration as a filter helps bring in serious users.
In our case we implemented #2. In our first iteration we asked for email, site name & password and when we removed site name & pwd fields we doubled conversions for trial as well as paying customers. We are not testing how simplifying the registration / account claimed would impact conversion.
P.S: When I say engage smartly, I am assuming we are all talking about non-spammy, subtle but showing enough intent to earn a serious trial user's business, like we all prefer to be treated. :)
- dummy data may not be of any value or interest to users
- you will have to promote the demo for anyone to hear about it
- if you are still months from launch there will be limited retention, zero if it's not functional or enticing
[0, 1] http://stanford.edu/~mwaskom/software/seaborn/
D3.js is a great tool for data visualization, but that might be an overkill if your needs are simple.
Using plastic gloves (or just put a plastic bag over your hand) spread a REALLY thin layer over the cooler using your finger. This is simply just to fill any small grooves in the coolers surface. If you lap your cooler you don't need to do this.
Using a credit card spread a layer around 1mm thick on CPU, the main thing here is to just try and cover the whole area of the CPU that comes into contact with the cooler.
The most important thing is not to fret too much about this. Once you've put it all together, run a stress test and keep an eye on the CPU temp, if it goes too high, just clean the paste off and try again :)
TLDR: if in doubt just use the small dot in the center method. the X if you're feeling creative
And yes, you just apply it to the cpu and when the heatsink presses on the cpu it will do the spreading by itself
If there are instructions available from the supplier I'd recommend sticking to that though because it seems like the different thermal paste brands behaves differently in terms of spreading.
Apply a pea-sized drop in the very center and you are done! (and resist the temptation to make it juust a little larger)
The pressure will spread it out evenly.
There was a video I saw where they did this using glass so you could how the paste spreads.